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     Prevalence rates of PAD for quintiles of UA level were 23.2%, 27.4%, 36.1%, 43.2% and 72.7%,respectively (P-trend< 0.05).
     把尿酸水平五等份后各等级的PAD患病率依次为23.2%、27.4%、36.1%、43.2%、72.7%(趋势χ2检验,P<0.05);
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     Male subjects with heavy daily alcohol intake had a significantly elevated risk of bladder cancer [OR= 1.10 (1-80 g/d) and 1.56 (>80 g/d),(P for trend=0.043)].
     男性随总酒精摄入量增加患膀胱癌的危险有增加趋势,OR值分别为1.10(1~80g/d)和1.56(>80g/d)(趋势检验P=0.043)。
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     It was 14.5% in people aged 60~ years,15.4% in65~yesrs,19.5% in 70~years,20.20% in 75~years,23.1% in 80~years and 28.6% in 85~95 years. Falls incidence increased with aging(X~2 for trend=10.37,P=0.001).
     60~、65~、70~、75~、80~、85~95岁年龄组跌倒发生率分别为14.5%、15.4%、19.5%、20.2%、23.1%和28.6%,跌倒发生率随年龄的增长而增加(趋势 x~2检验,x~2=10.37,P<0.01)。
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     Results indicated an in- creasing trend in incidence of the disease ( Trend tast:χ2 =76.0 6,P<0 .0 1) .
     结果表明 ,其发病率呈逐年上升趋势 (趋势检验 :χ2 =76.0 6,P<0 .0 1) ;
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     The more serious of the depression degree, the higher of the prevalence rate of insomnia(the chi-square tend test ~2=80.09,P<0.001).
     随着抑郁程度的增加,失眠率有升高趋势(趋势χ2=80.09,P<0.001);
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     趋势
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     (6)Tendency of incidence .
     (6)发病趋势
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We describe two opposite direction functors between Kronecker webs and integrable bihamiltonian structures: one is left inverse to the other.
      
The restrictions, we are interested in, concern the direction of the (vector) values of the Fourier transform.
      
In particular, we prove here that the USC and the "tile → spectral" direction of Fuglede's conjecture are equivalent in any dimensions.
      
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A tank experiment to study the rainfall characteristics,degree of slope and kinds of crops in relation to erosion of the Szechuan purple brown soil was carried out on the experimental farm of the University of Nanking in Chengtu during the period from 1941 to 1945 inclusive.The text consists of the results,of four years only,that of the first year being used for reference.

本试验就成都南郊金陵大学农场利用箱具装置以求降雨,坡度及作物种类对于四川紫棕土冲蚀之关系,试验自1941年须始至1945年年底为止,本报告包括1942至1945年四年记录;最初一年记录仅供参考未列入计算。试验中之箱具係木制,长1.8公尺,宽0.35公尺,深0.33公尺,共四具,分别置于5%,10%,20%及30%之四种坡度上,内盛四川红色盆地中之一种紫棕色粘土。降雨之时,每廿小时测定雨量,逕流及土壤冲矢量各一次,试验中192及1943两年行播芝蔴代表茎葉稀疏之作物,1944及1945年密播大豆代表茎菜密茂之作物。四年结果中之要点如下:(i)本试验四年中成都年降水量总平均为959.9公厘,最少年为689.9公厘而最多年为489.8公厘,本试验芝蔴年度平均降水量为734.0公厘,而大豆年度平均降水量为1185.8公厘。(ii)成都降雨烈度可暂按廿四小时内雨量,分为0—3.9m.m.,4—7.9m.m.,8—11.9m.m.,12—23.9m.m.,24—17.9m.m.,4(?)—95.6m.m.,96—191.9m.m.,等七级,四年中廿四小时内最多雨量可自84.2公厘至183.2公厘不等,此项烈雨可降于六月初...

本试验就成都南郊金陵大学农场利用箱具装置以求降雨,坡度及作物种类对于四川紫棕土冲蚀之关系,试验自1941年须始至1945年年底为止,本报告包括1942至1945年四年记录;最初一年记录仅供参考未列入计算。试验中之箱具係木制,长1.8公尺,宽0.35公尺,深0.33公尺,共四具,分别置于5%,10%,20%及30%之四种坡度上,内盛四川红色盆地中之一种紫棕色粘土。降雨之时,每廿小时测定雨量,逕流及土壤冲矢量各一次,试验中192及1943两年行播芝蔴代表茎葉稀疏之作物,1944及1945年密播大豆代表茎菜密茂之作物。四年结果中之要点如下:(i)本试验四年中成都年降水量总平均为959.9公厘,最少年为689.9公厘而最多年为489.8公厘,本试验芝蔴年度平均降水量为734.0公厘,而大豆年度平均降水量为1185.8公厘。(ii)成都降雨烈度可暂按廿四小时内雨量,分为0—3.9m.m.,4—7.9m.m.,8—11.9m.m.,12—23.9m.m.,24—17.9m.m.,4(?)—95.6m.m.,96—191.9m.m.,等七级,四年中廿四小时内最多雨量可自84.2公厘至183.2公厘不等,此项烈雨可降于六月初至八月底之间,廿四小时内大于24公厘之雨日可自七日至十七日不等。(iii)芝蔴年度年降水量虽较大豆年度为低,但逕流占年雨量百分数,依坡度顺序,则前者各为16.95%,19.23%,25.71%及27.66%而后者各为3.96%,9.06%,9.63%及10.62%。(iv)四年中逕流量之实际数值,依坡度顺序,芝蔴年度各为129.11公厘,143.79公厘,193.54公厘及216.64公厘,而后者各为53.37公厘,120.59公厘,121.60公厘及135.07公厘。逕流逐月分布隨雨量分佈而变异,惟大豆作物有使逕流分佈百分数,向各月分散之趋势。又芝蔴年度七月份或八月份之逕流量可占年逕流量70%以上。(v)逕流之大部由于廿四小时内大于24公厘之雨量所发生,各坡度上大于24公厘之烈度等级中,在芝蔴年度,其分佈百分数之和幾全人於80%,而在大豆年度,其分佈百分数之和,自约38%至90%以上不等。芝蔴年度逕流量之实际数值较大豆年度为大,但逕流量隨坡度增加之比率则芝蔴年度较大豆年度为小。(vi)土壤冲失量之实际数值,依坡度顺序,芝蔴年度各为每市亩773.91市斤,832.5市斤,2004.93市斤及2822.62市斤,而大豆年度各为每市亩270.02市斤,370.50市斤,666.53市斤及762.95市斤,大豆年度中雨量特別丰沛之年,大豆护土力在大坡度上(坡度30%)更为显盖。(vii)芝蔴年度月雨量对于土壤冲矢量之影响大于对于逕流量之影响,月雨量增多,使同月土壤冲失量增加之百分数较使同月逕流量增加之百分数为大,大豆年度则反是。芝蔴年度土壤冲失量之实际数值较大豆年度为大,目土壤冲失量隨坡度增加之比率,芝蔴年度亦较大豆年度为大。(viii)据本试验情形,某一日之前五日内如降落巨雨,则该日急雨可发生甚大量之逕流及土壤冲失,芝蔴年度此种情形甚显,但大豆年度则不显。(ix)大豆作物之护土力,由于宽阔平向之叶面及密茂之莖叶可遮蔽地面以防雨滴之打击,而落叶护土亦可使地面流水澄清而维持土壤之渗漏速率,又麦稈覆盖地面之护土效力甚宏,如于大豆莖叶向未郁閉之前用之,可防初夏急雨之冲蚀。(X)自成都向南至仁寿县一带之紫棕土斤陵地,可行玉米与大豆等高行栽之间作制,惟大豆宜密植以收护土之效,若能于生长前期,地面覆盖麦稈,则土壤冲蚀之害可大减。

The rice stem borer, Chilo simplex Bulter, is one of the important rice pestsin Kiangsi. The relative proportion of this borer to Schoenobius incertellus Wk. isgradually increased especially after developing the movement of "Control the RiceBorer by Plowing in Autumn, Winter and Early Spring." This situation induced usto take up this problem. This paper deals with the distribution of the borer Chilo simplex with a dis-cussion of the factors influencing its distributional population. in Kiangsi. The lifehistory,...

The rice stem borer, Chilo simplex Bulter, is one of the important rice pestsin Kiangsi. The relative proportion of this borer to Schoenobius incertellus Wk. isgradually increased especially after developing the movement of "Control the RiceBorer by Plowing in Autumn, Winter and Early Spring." This situation induced usto take up this problem. This paper deals with the distribution of the borer Chilo simplex with a dis-cussion of the factors influencing its distributional population. in Kiangsi. The lifehistory, behavior of the borer and its relation to Zizania latifolia Hence are also givenin detail. Zizania latifolia is a good shelter for overwintering larvae of the borer,so it is better to discourage the cultivation of this plant in the rice area, or to treatits stubbles soon after harvest or in late March the following year.

(一)二化螟在江西的分布情况,根据三年来的考察,在比例上较三化螟有逐渐扩展的趋势。此项原因,与江西三年来厉行三耕的结果是分不开的。因三耕后,三化螟大部死亡,二化螟则在越冬期中的顽强性大,能逃逸到其他杂草根部去躲藏,所以死亡率不高。 (二)同地区二化螟的分布密度,常因水稻品种的不同、栽培制度的不同、早晚稻的不同、以及周围有无菱白而发生差异。一般糯稻与粳稻中的二化螟分布密度,较高于籼稻;一季晚籼和一季晚糯的二化螟数目,又高于二季晚籼;早稻枯心苗中极少三化螟,晚稻枯心苗中渐多,到晚稻遗株中,则又往往超过了二化螟而占优势。 (三)菱白为二化螟及大螟的越冬大本营,能提早该地区二化螟第一代幼虫的发生期,增加该地区二化螟发生化数,又能使周围水稻田中,二化螟的数量增多,故稻区最好不种菱白。如果一定要种,则必须注意处理它的越冬遗株。处理的方法,根据二化螟及大螟在越冬前后部位的转移情形,抓紧在10月底前或5月底后,将菱白地上部位齐泥割去,深埋土下,或晒乾烧去,即可免其变蛹羽化,继续加害。

It is pointed out in this paper that the following apparent discrepancies exist in Coulomb's Theory: (1) In any problem in mechanics, a force to be definite must have all the three factors involved under consideration. In Coulomb's Theory, however, the point of application of the soil reaction on the plane of sliding is somehow neglected, thus enabling the arbitrary designation of the obliquity of the earth pressure on the wall to be equal to the friction angle between the wall surface and soil. As a matter...

It is pointed out in this paper that the following apparent discrepancies exist in Coulomb's Theory: (1) In any problem in mechanics, a force to be definite must have all the three factors involved under consideration. In Coulomb's Theory, however, the point of application of the soil reaction on the plane of sliding is somehow neglected, thus enabling the arbitrary designation of the obliquity of the earth pressure on the wall to be equal to the friction angle between the wall surface and soil. As a matter of principle, the point of application should never be slighted while the obliquity of the earth pressure could only have a value that is compatible with the conditions for equilibrium. (2) If the point of application of the soil reaction is taken into account in the problem, the sliding wedge would only tend to slide either on the plane of sliding or on the surface of wall but not on both at the same time, thus frustrating the very conceptidn of sliding wedge upon which Coulomb's Theory is founded. (3) The above discrepancies arise from the fact that the shape of the surface of sliding should be curvilinear in order to make the wedge tend to slide as desired, while Coulomb, however, adopted a plane surface instead. (4) Coulomb, in finding the plane of sliding, made use of the maximum earth pressure on the wall (for active pressure), which refers to the different magnitudes of pressure corresponding to different assumed inclinations of the plane of sliding. But from the relation between the yield of wall and amount of pressure, this maximum value is really the minimum pressure on the wall, which it is the purpose of the theory to find. In engineering books, however, this terminology of maximum pressure has caused considerable confusion, with the result that what is really the minimum pressure is carelessly taken as the maximum design load for the wall. How can a minimum load be used in a design?This paper also attempts to clarify some contended points in Rankine's Theory: (1) It is claimed by Prof. Terzaghi that Rankine's Theory is only a fallacy because of the yield of wall and that of the soil mass on its bed. This charge is unjust as it can be compared with Coulomb's Theory in the same respect. (2) Some books declare that Rankine's Theory is good only for walls with vertical back, but it is proved in this paper that this is not so. (3) It is also generally believed that Rankine's Theory is applicable only to wall surfaces with no friction. This is likewise taken by this paper as unfounded and illustration is given whereby, in this regard, Rankine's Theory is even better than Coulomb's, because it contains no contradiction, as does Coulomb's.

本文從力學觀點對庫隆理論提出下列問題:(1)在解算力學問題時,每個力有三個因素都該同時考慮,但庫隆對土楔滑動面上土反力的施力點竟置之不理,因而才能對擋土墙上土壓力的傾斜角作一硬性假定,使它等於墙和土間的摩阻角,然而施力點是不能不管的,因而土壓力的傾斜角是不能離開平衡條件而被隨意指定的。(2)如果考慮了土反力的施力點,則土楔祇能在滑動面上,或在墙面上,有滑動的趨勢,而不能同時在兩個面上都有滑動的趨勢,因而庫隆的基本概念“滑動土楔”就站不住了。(3)問題關鍵在滑動面的形狀;如要使土楔在滑動面和墙面上同時有滑動趨勢,則滑動面必須是曲形面,然而庫隆採用了平直形的滑動面。(4)庫隆的土楔滑動面是從墙上最大的土壓力求出的(指主動壓力),這裏所謂“最大”是指適應各個滑動面的各個土壓力而言,但對適應墙在側傾時土壓力應有的變化來說,這個最大土壓力却正是墙上極限壓力的最小值。一般工程書籍,以為這土壓力既名為最大,就拿它來用作設計擋土墙的荷載,荷載如何能用最小的極限值呢?本文對朗金理論中的下列問題作了一些解釋:(1)朗金理論在擋土墙的位移問題上所受的限制,是和庫隆理論一樣的,竇薩基教授曾就此問題認為朗金理論是幻想,似乎是無根據的。...

本文從力學觀點對庫隆理論提出下列問題:(1)在解算力學問題時,每個力有三個因素都該同時考慮,但庫隆對土楔滑動面上土反力的施力點竟置之不理,因而才能對擋土墙上土壓力的傾斜角作一硬性假定,使它等於墙和土間的摩阻角,然而施力點是不能不管的,因而土壓力的傾斜角是不能離開平衡條件而被隨意指定的。(2)如果考慮了土反力的施力點,則土楔祇能在滑動面上,或在墙面上,有滑動的趨勢,而不能同時在兩個面上都有滑動的趨勢,因而庫隆的基本概念“滑動土楔”就站不住了。(3)問題關鍵在滑動面的形狀;如要使土楔在滑動面和墙面上同時有滑動趨勢,則滑動面必須是曲形面,然而庫隆採用了平直形的滑動面。(4)庫隆的土楔滑動面是從墙上最大的土壓力求出的(指主動壓力),這裏所謂“最大”是指適應各個滑動面的各個土壓力而言,但對適應墙在側傾時土壓力應有的變化來說,這個最大土壓力却正是墙上極限壓力的最小值。一般工程書籍,以為這土壓力既名為最大,就拿它來用作設計擋土墙的荷載,荷載如何能用最小的極限值呢?本文對朗金理論中的下列問題作了一些解釋:(1)朗金理論在擋土墙的位移問題上所受的限制,是和庫隆理論一樣的,竇薩基教授曾就此問題認為朗金理論是幻想,似乎是無根據的。(2)有些工程書中認為朗金理論是專為垂直的墙?

 
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