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     In Lycium barbarum L. root areas, K+、Na+、Cl-、Na++K+ /Ca2+
     距树干不同距离处的可溶性盐分、K+、Na+、Ca2+、Mg2+、SO42-和Cl-的层次分布呈表层高—中层低—下层高的规律。
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     Relationship between Carotid Artery Intima Media Thickness and Apolipoprotein E Genotypes among Patients with Premature Coronary Heart Disease
     早发冠心病患者颈总动脉内膜—中层厚度与载脂蛋白E基因型的关系
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     Relationship between serum leptin and the intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid artery
     血清瘦素与颈动脉内膜—中层厚度关系的探讨
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     There were higher values of IMT in apoE3/4 group than that in apoE2/3. There was positive correlation between IMT and TC(r=0.401,P<0.01) and LDLC(r=0.376,P<0.01).
     载脂蛋白E3 4基因型组内膜—中层厚度高于载脂蛋白E2 3组 (P <0 .0 5 )。 内膜—中层厚度与总胆固醇 (r =0 .4 0 1,P <0 .0 1)和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇 (r=0 .376 ,P <0 .0 1)呈正相关。
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     Methods:The diastolic and systolic diameter (Ddand Es)of thoracic aorta,its intimo-medal thickness(IMT), its peterson's and Young's elastic modules(Ep and Es),and its stiffness index (β)were measured in 41 normal subjects and 42 subjects with hypertension by transesophageal echocardiography.
     方法应用多平面经食管超声技术,测量了正常组41例和高血压组22例受试者胸主动脉舒张期内径(Dd)、收缩期内径(Ds)、内膜———中层厚度(IMT),计算了Peterson’s弹性指数(Ep)、Young’s弹性的指数(Es)和僵硬度(β)。
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     the middle layer is chloroplyll a;
     中层是叶绿素a;
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     Three middle layers are ephemeral;
     中层3层;
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The black shales also contain K-bentonites from explosive, felsic-intermediate volcanism, the distribution of which also supports orogeny to the southeast.
      
It is demonstrated that the friction coefficient for these solid electrolytes may correspond to the underdamped-to-intermediate-damping regime.
      
Six young bipolar outflows in regions of low-intermediate-mass star formation were observed in the 70-61A+, 80-71A+, and 5-1-40E methanol lines at 44, 95, and 84 GHz, respectively.
      
The orebodies occur as quartz veins hosted in metaterrigenous rocks and cut by postmineral basic-intermediate dikes.
      
Benzylpenicillin, however, can be used for most infections caused by penicillin-intermediate and all infections caused by penicillin-sensitive strains.
      
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This is a brief report of a preliminary survey of certain rain-bearing systems over China in later spring and summer. In the first part, a general description of the methods of analysis used in this survey is given. As the temperature and wind fields are weak, and the precipitation is heavy, smaller intervals for the isotherms and contours in the constant pressure surface and pseudo-equivalent potential instead of potential temperature in the cross section analysis are used.In the second part, there are descriptions...

This is a brief report of a preliminary survey of certain rain-bearing systems over China in later spring and summer. In the first part, a general description of the methods of analysis used in this survey is given. As the temperature and wind fields are weak, and the precipitation is heavy, smaller intervals for the isotherms and contours in the constant pressure surface and pseudo-equivalent potential instead of potential temperature in the cross section analysis are used.In the second part, there are descriptions of the structure and development of five frequently observed rain-bearing systems i.e. cold front, blocking high and cold vortex, monsoon heat low, warm front and typhoon.The last part consists of discussions of some points of view in synoptic meteorology in China. It is stated that the monsoon precipitation is various in intensity and duration according the large-scale flow patterns. The difference of moisture content in the middle troposphere as a criterion for the identification of equatorial or tropical maritime air mass is proved to be missleading. It is shown that the upper air moist content is high only within the raining region near the polar or equatorial front. To the south of the equatorial front within the so-called equatorial air mass, the moist content in the middle troposphere is as low as within the tropical maritime air mass. It is the convergence and lifting of the tropical air mass which releases the convective instability and induces the surface moist air rising to the middle troposphere. The phenomenon of the forward-inclination of the so-called North-West Trough based on the time cross-section of wind is proved to be a mistake by combining two systems into one trough. The terminology of shear line, and the correct application of synoptic models in weather analysis and forecas-ting are also discussed.

本文是一年来从事夏季降水天气初步普查的简单报告。第一节首先指出所用分析方法与一般国内所通用者,稍有不同。高空等压面分析,取20米作为等高缐间隔,2℃作为等温缐间隔。代替40米及5℃的间隔,以适应夏半年较弱的温度场与气压形势场,在剖面分析中以等假相当位温缐代替位温缐,与等温缐配合以适应降水天气的凝结降水过程。 第二节讨论了五种夏半年基本降水天气系统,即冷锋、阻塞高压与冷涡、季风热低压、 暖锋及有风的结构,并简单地叙述了演变过程。 第三节对某些天气概念提供一些批判性的讨论。根据现已增加的观测材料,论证季风与梅雨是多样性的,决定于大规模的温度场与流场特性,以高空湿度大小区分赤道气团与热带海洋气团,证明是不适当的,因为中国赤道锋降水区域以南,即在所谓南南季风的赤道气团中,中层大气仍是干燥的。降水区域内,中层对流层的大量水份,是由于辐合或抬升的作用,使潜势的对流不稳定性成为现实的不稳定性,而由下层空气上升带上去的。文中还论证了所谓西北槽槽缐前倾是将两个系统混作—个系统的不正确桔果。最后还讨论了切交缐及一般模型在天气分析预报中的应用与限制。

Heterotopic Purkinje cells are found in the superficial cerebellar cortex in various microscopic sections of the cerebellum of adult representatives of the mammalian orders including insectivores, rodents, carnivores, artio- dactyls and primates, as well as normal and pathological human beings of different ages. Superficial to the middle layer of the cerebellar cortex the heterotopic Purkinje cells are hung on the outermost margin of the cortex or even slipped into the subpial space. Within the molecular layer...

Heterotopic Purkinje cells are found in the superficial cerebellar cortex in various microscopic sections of the cerebellum of adult representatives of the mammalian orders including insectivores, rodents, carnivores, artio- dactyls and primates, as well as normal and pathological human beings of different ages. Superficial to the middle layer of the cerebellar cortex the heterotopic Purkinje cells are hung on the outermost margin of the cortex or even slipped into the subpial space. Within the molecular layer they subsist in isolation, in groups, in rarefied file, in tortuous alignment, or in wholesale displacement. The heterotopic Purkinje cells are largely hypotrophic with roundish bodies, large nuclei, little cytoplasm, and slender and straight dendrites. Their orientation is multifarious. They are, again, often pathological, being elongated, withered, or with multiple nuclei or nucleoli. They are frequently accompanied by primitive granules which geneti- cally descend from the superficial to the deep planes, thus hinting at their common source. The theory of ventrieular origin fails to explain the aberration of the Purkinje cells to the superficial parts, whereas the facts of heterotopy reflect their origination from the margin and their descent towards the middle level as products of a secondary germination. Under adverse conditions, the primordial Purkinje cells are affected in their capacity of migration and differentiation and, consequently, remain in the original ger- minal bed or slip into the subpial cavity with the crumpling pia mater. They may, again, halt midway singly, collectively, in interrupted file, in sinuous row formation, or in dispersion throughout the whole molecular layer. Cortical patches occasionally present in the interior of pathological cerebellum testifies to the capacity of the potential germinal cells coming from the ventricular matrix to proliferate Purkinje and other cortical cells in the deep as well as in the superficial portions. The retention at adult age of the 'external' granular or Kirschhof's layer together with simulta- neous reduction or absence of Purkinje cells below implies the derivation of the latter cells normally from the margin through a stage corresponding to such granules. The heterotopy of Purkinje cells in the superficial cortex signifies that a part (if not whole) of them at least originate from the marginal granular layer of the early stage.

觀察了食蟲、齧齒、食肉、貧齒、偶蹄、靈長各目的成長動物,以及年齡不同的正常和病態的人類小腦切片,在皮質淺部都見異位的樸氏細胞。在皮質中層正列以上,樸氏細胞可附貼皮質的外緣,甚至落入軟膜下腔。在分子層中,它們可孤處、團聚、間隔平排、在正位行伍錯亂、也可漫佈分子全層。異位的細胞多屬稚型:形體渾圓、胞核大、胞漿少、方向複雜樹突細直。它們也顯病態:胞體狹長、形相枯竭、有時多核、多仁。 樸氏細胞的異位照例伴有應自表層沉居深部的顆粒細胞,這表示它們同是出於邊緣顆粒。 說樸氏細胞源出室壁生發層不能解釋它們留居皮質的淺部。異位的事實指證它們來自邊緣顆粒層,出於二級的生發,下沉定居中層。初型的樸氏細胞受了惡性因素的影響,減低了遷移、分化的能力,以致留居原產地點,隨軟膜落入下腔,下沉時隨地中止-孤處、團聚、成排、漫散。在病理小腦中,皮質的團塊可孤處深部,這表示二級的生發細胞永達淺面而在深部增殖,也生出樸氏細胞。受了發生的遏制,成長以後,分子層中部可長久殘存横延的“外”顆粒層;此時深方即無有或少有樸氏細胞。此層稀疏或中斷的地點,在下方樸氏細胞就分化很好。這暗示樸氏細胞是通過此層從淺面移來的。 樸氏細胞在淺部的異位指證它們至少有一部...

觀察了食蟲、齧齒、食肉、貧齒、偶蹄、靈長各目的成長動物,以及年齡不同的正常和病態的人類小腦切片,在皮質淺部都見異位的樸氏細胞。在皮質中層正列以上,樸氏細胞可附貼皮質的外緣,甚至落入軟膜下腔。在分子層中,它們可孤處、團聚、間隔平排、在正位行伍錯亂、也可漫佈分子全層。異位的細胞多屬稚型:形體渾圓、胞核大、胞漿少、方向複雜樹突細直。它們也顯病態:胞體狹長、形相枯竭、有時多核、多仁。 樸氏細胞的異位照例伴有應自表層沉居深部的顆粒細胞,這表示它們同是出於邊緣顆粒。 說樸氏細胞源出室壁生發層不能解釋它們留居皮質的淺部。異位的事實指證它們來自邊緣顆粒層,出於二級的生發,下沉定居中層。初型的樸氏細胞受了惡性因素的影響,減低了遷移、分化的能力,以致留居原產地點,隨軟膜落入下腔,下沉時隨地中止-孤處、團聚、成排、漫散。在病理小腦中,皮質的團塊可孤處深部,這表示二級的生發細胞永達淺面而在深部增殖,也生出樸氏細胞。受了發生的遏制,成長以後,分子層中部可長久殘存横延的“外”顆粒層;此時深方即無有或少有樸氏細胞。此層稀疏或中斷的地點,在下方樸氏細胞就分化很好。這暗示樸氏細胞是通過此層從淺面移來的。 樸氏細胞在淺部的異位指證它們至少有一部分(若非全部)是出自早期的邊緣顆粒層。

The general histological structure is fundamentally similar to that of the skin of frog (Pl. Ⅰ, Fig. 1). In the superficial layer of the dermis there are large and conspicuous round masses, which are akin to the sieve layer (Siebschicht of Kastschenko) both in appearance and in staining reaction (Pl. Ⅰ, Fig. 1; Pl. Ⅳ, Fig. 6). To our knowledge, the origin and function of these masses as well as the sieve layer are still obscure.According to the living habit, the life of the toad during the year can be divided...

The general histological structure is fundamentally similar to that of the skin of frog (Pl. Ⅰ, Fig. 1). In the superficial layer of the dermis there are large and conspicuous round masses, which are akin to the sieve layer (Siebschicht of Kastschenko) both in appearance and in staining reaction (Pl. Ⅰ, Fig. 1; Pl. Ⅳ, Fig. 6). To our knowledge, the origin and function of these masses as well as the sieve layer are still obscure.According to the living habit, the life of the toad during the year can be divided into three seasons: namely, the hibernating, the breeding and the post-breeding season.In the hibernating season the epidermis reaches its maximal thickness due to increase in cell layer as well as in cell size. Cell division is rare in this season. The superficial layer is evenly cornified and the intensity of comification is intermediate, being stronger than that in the breeding season but less than that in the post-breeding season. This horny layer is connected intimately with the layer below and shows no sign of moulting (Pl.Ⅰ, Fig. 1; Pl. Ⅱ, Fig. 1). The flask-cells of Pfitzner (nucous cells of Legdig or goblet cells of Schultze) are very rare and when present, they are not fully differentiated from the ordinary epidermal cells. Melanophores are greatly expanded both in the epidermis and in the dermis (Pl.Ⅳ, Figs. 4, 3). Dermal papillae are tall and prominent (Pl. Ⅱ, Fig. 1).In the breeding season the epidermis is much thinner than that in the hibernating season. Moulting of skin goes on continuously. In association with moulting the flask-cells increase in number and show vigorous activity in secretion (Pl. Ⅱ, Fig, 2). Numerous amitoses are present in the middle and lower layer of the epidermis. At the initiation of the amitotic division a furrow appears at one side of the nucleus, which deepens and finally cuts the nucleus into two. Sometimes two furrows are formed, causing one nucleus to break up into three. A furrow may start at one end of the long diameter of the elliptical nucleus, causing it to split longitudinally into two daughter nuclei (Pl. Ⅰ, Fig, 2). We call this mode of amitosis furrowing amitosis. The usual mode of amitosis in which the nucleus divides by a central constriction could be found also, but cases are very rare. Mitotic figures are very rare. Melanophores are more or less contracted in the epidermis as well as in the dermis (Pl. Ⅱ, Fig. 2).In the post-breeding season the epidermis is intermediate in thickness between those of hibernating and breeding seasons. Due to the dryness on land the certification of the superficial layer is intense. Sometimes there are three layers of highly cornified cells, while in the other seasons this layer is always simple (Pl. Ⅱ, Figs. 3, 4, 5). Both mitosis and amitosis are present (Pl. Ⅱ, Figs. 6, 7). The former is much more in number than the latter. Wandering cells in the dermis penetrate into the epidermis and become epidermal cells (Pl. Ⅲ, Figs. 1, 2, 3). Flask-cells are fewer in number and less in activity than in the breeding season, hence the moulting of skin goes on slowly. All the melanophores are contracted in the form of a black spot (Pl. Ⅱ, Figs. 3, 4, 5). The blood vessels in the epidermis are greatly expanded, and are therefore easily seen (Pl.Ⅳ, Fig. 6).The nuclei of certain epidermal cells send out processes, which penetrate through the cell membrane and move along the intercellular spaces (Pl. Ⅲ, Figs. 4, 6). Sometimes these processes get into the neighboring cells (Pl. Ⅲ, Figs. 7, 8). In still other cases nuclei sued out coarse processes which come into contact with identical processes sent out by nuclei of neighboring cells (Pl. Ⅲ, Fig. 5). So far as we know, such intercellular activity of nuclei of the epidermal cells has not been heretofore repoifted. Its significance probably lies in the transportation of certain substances such as DNA. Nuclei showing this activity stain more intensively with Feulgen.The above description applies to the typical structures in each season. It is found that at the time between two se

蟾蜍皮肤的构造基本上与蛙类相同。只是在蟾蜍的真皮上层除去有筛层而外还有大而圆的物体,在形态及染色反应上与筛层相近似,我们名之为粘液团(因为有粘液反应)。 依大蟾蜍的生活习性,我们把它在一年之中的生活分为三期——冬眠期、生殖期及生殖后期。 冬眠期表皮的厚度增加,层数多,细胞也增大。很少见细胞分裂。表层细胞角化得很均匀,其程度比生殖期略强而比生殖后期为弱。这一层与下面一层连接得很紧密,没有任何脱落的迹象。瓶状细胞很少,如果看到总是处于不太分化的状态,除去它的细胞质比较清明而外,与表皮细胞的差别不大。在表皮与真皮之中色素细胞极度扩张。真皮乳头高而显著。 生殖期表皮比冬眠期薄,脱皮不断迸行。与脱皮相关的瓶状细胞数量增加,并且显现非常强烈的分泌过程。在中层及下层中有许多的无丝分裂。分裂的方式多为陷沟式。一般所见的无丝分裂即核拉长,中间缢缩,然后分开的情形也能见到,不过远比陷沟式为少。有丝分裂很少见到。表皮与真皮中的色素细胞多少有些收缩。 生殖后期表皮的厚度界于冬眠与生殖二期之间。由于陆地的干燥表皮表层细胞角化程度加深。有时表面集聚三层高度角化的细胞,而在其他季节中表层总是一层。有丝分裂与无丝分裂皆有,但前者...

蟾蜍皮肤的构造基本上与蛙类相同。只是在蟾蜍的真皮上层除去有筛层而外还有大而圆的物体,在形态及染色反应上与筛层相近似,我们名之为粘液团(因为有粘液反应)。 依大蟾蜍的生活习性,我们把它在一年之中的生活分为三期——冬眠期、生殖期及生殖后期。 冬眠期表皮的厚度增加,层数多,细胞也增大。很少见细胞分裂。表层细胞角化得很均匀,其程度比生殖期略强而比生殖后期为弱。这一层与下面一层连接得很紧密,没有任何脱落的迹象。瓶状细胞很少,如果看到总是处于不太分化的状态,除去它的细胞质比较清明而外,与表皮细胞的差别不大。在表皮与真皮之中色素细胞极度扩张。真皮乳头高而显著。 生殖期表皮比冬眠期薄,脱皮不断迸行。与脱皮相关的瓶状细胞数量增加,并且显现非常强烈的分泌过程。在中层及下层中有许多的无丝分裂。分裂的方式多为陷沟式。一般所见的无丝分裂即核拉长,中间缢缩,然后分开的情形也能见到,不过远比陷沟式为少。有丝分裂很少见到。表皮与真皮中的色素细胞多少有些收缩。 生殖后期表皮的厚度界于冬眠与生殖二期之间。由于陆地的干燥表皮表层细胞角化程度加深。有时表面集聚三层高度角化的细胞,而在其他季节中表层总是一层。有丝分裂与无丝分裂皆有,但前者远比后者为多,真皮中的游走细胞穿入?

 
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