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  by generation
     With increase of consciousness for environment protection, public more and more pay attention to the environment pollution problem caused by generation electricity.
     随着对环境问题的日益重视,由发电引起的环境问题也越来越受到公众的重视。
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     In the electricity market environment,the maintenance scheduling of generation units(MSUs) proposed by generation companies concerned must be checked and approved by the independent system operator(ISO). In case that the MSUs could lead to an insecure operating state of the power system,the ISO must make some regulation to the MSUs.
     在电力市场环境下,由发电公司自行制定的发电机组检修计划必须经系统调度机构(ISO)进行审核、并在需要时作适当调整以确保电力系统的安全可靠运行。
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  “由发电”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Firstly, the author designs the project management model—the group corporation setting up the Project Management Enterprise.
     本文首先设计了电力工程项目管理模式——由发电集团公司组建 PM 企业(Project Management Enterprise)管理工程建设项目;
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     From the functions describing the relationship of the generation cost with the engineering energy gain and the MPD, the elasticity coefficients of the generation cost with the engineering energy gain and the MPD have been derived respectively to analyze their sensitivity to the generation cost and the MPD.
     由发电成本对工程能量增益与堆体质量功率密度的函数关系,导出了发电成本对工程能量增益与堆体质量功率密度的“弹性系数”,并由此进行发电成本对工程能量增益与堆体质量功率密度的敏感性分析。
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     At present the price risk management theory is the main topic of risk theory for electricity retail enterprises and is used to solve risk problems caused by price volatility at power generation side in short or long term, but other risks are neglected and the reasons causing the price volatility are also not researched in detail.
     价格风险理论是当前电力零售企业风险理论的主要论题,用于解决短期或长期内由发电侧市场价格波动所产生的风险问题,但它忽略了其他风险因素,也不深究价格波动产生的原因。
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     In the future reform of the electricity sector, the influence of competition will spread from electricity power plants and providers to the links of network in the ways of network competitions and power resources competitions.
     在未来的电力体制改革中,竞争的力量将以网络竞争和能源竞争的方式由发电侧和供电测向中间环节的电网延伸。
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     Marine power station (MPS) is an important part of shipping and the core of marine electric power system.
     船舶电站是船舶的重要组成部分,是船舶电力系统的核心,它由发电装置和配电装置组成。
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     Level analysis method which was established by T.
     T.
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     Its concept was first presented by O.
     O.
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     Wind power
     风力发电
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     The concept of solar chimney power plant was firstly presented in 1978,and some successes has obtained.
     1978年,太阳能烟囱发电技术首先德国J.
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     RESEARCH ON THE PRODUCTION OF WHITE CARBON FROM RICE HUSK ASH.
     稻壳发电剩余物—稻壳灰生产白炭黑研究
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  by generation
Autooxidation of polyvalent anions in basic media was accompanied by generation of naphthosemiquinone and superoxide anion radicals as free radical intermediates.
      
The findings suggest that the light-dependent conversion of Dend FP is caused by generation of an additional double bond in the side chain of His65 and a resulting extension of the conjugated system of the green form chromophore.
      
It is shown that, in the case of devices of traditional design, this adjustment can be accompanied by generation of a correlated (geometric) noise, which essentially deteriorates the resolution capability.
      
Mechanisms of Initiated Protein Peroxidation Accompanied by Generation of Carbonyl Fragments
      
Inbreeding coefficient increased steadily but by generation 100 reached values higher than 0.9.
      
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Electric power networks were described by a bipartite graph. The graph consists of two kinds of nodes, the power generation nodes and the power demand nodes. Considering that the economic decision and reliability operation of a power system can be done separately, a model to optimize the electric power purchase and distribution planning was proposed. Based on graphic theory, the necessary condition of solution existence was proposed. The solution can be obtained by linear programming algorithm. According to...

Electric power networks were described by a bipartite graph. The graph consists of two kinds of nodes, the power generation nodes and the power demand nodes. Considering that the economic decision and reliability operation of a power system can be done separately, a model to optimize the electric power purchase and distribution planning was proposed. Based on graphic theory, the necessary condition of solution existence was proposed. The solution can be obtained by linear programming algorithm. According to the power and financial of two kinds of nodes, the equation set of power prices was constructed. Then, the power prices of each node can be obtained by solving the equation set. The approach was used to solve a number of simulated problems of power purchase and distribution planning from the actual power networks.

将电力系统描述为一个由发电节点和用电节点两类构成的二分图·在电力系统的经济决策和系统运行技术分析可以分别进行的前提下 ,提出一种电力市场下电力购买与配送计划优化的模型 ,基于图论理论给出模型解存在的必要条件·并提出基于线性规划的模型求解算法·根据各类节点的电量和资金平衡条件 ,构造包含节点电价的线性方程组 ,从而构成确定各节点成本电价的方法·上述方法对大量来源于实际电力系统购配电计划模拟问题进行了计算 ,取得了满意的结果·

Since much costs will be expanded during the units start-up process, should the costs be considered by power transmission companies when they make generation scheduling or be considered by the generation companies when they bid ? To solve these questions, taking the comparison of the start-up cost of the units and their generation benefit as the starting point, an idea is put forward in which in accordance with the factors such as the start-up efficiency and the life-span of the units and the current policy...

Since much costs will be expanded during the units start-up process, should the costs be considered by power transmission companies when they make generation scheduling or be considered by the generation companies when they bid ? To solve these questions, taking the comparison of the start-up cost of the units and their generation benefit as the starting point, an idea is put forward in which in accordance with the factors such as the start-up efficiency and the life-span of the units and the current policy of the government and considering the interest of various aspects the parameters of each unit that contain the dualism of technology and economy and are called minimum economic running hours are jointly checked and ratified by the dispatching and centre of the electricity market, the generation companies and administration of the market while the start-up costs of the units are dealt with by generation companies themselves according to the characteristics of the units and the situation of the market, and the start-up and shut down costs of the units are not solely considered and defrayed by the transaction centre in the electricity market when the generation scheduling for bidding are made and the accounts are settled. Besides, two methods of allocating the units' start-up costs, i.e., the average allocation method and the load allocation method, are given and the influences of the two allocation methods on the economy of both sides are compared.

机组在启动过程中需要耗费高额的启动费,这部分启动费是应由电网公司在制定日计划时予以考虑,还是应由发电公司在报价时自行考虑?针对这一问题,作者以对比机组启动费用与发电效益为出发点,提出了根据机组的启机效率、使用寿命以及国家现阶段的政策导向等多方面因素,由电力市场调度交易中心和发电公司以及市场监管部门兼顾各方利益,共同核定机组的含有技术和经济双重性的参数“最小经济运行小时数”,并由发电公司依据机组自身特性和市场状况,自行处理启动费;而调度交易中心在制定竞价上网发电计划及结算时则不再单独考虑和支付机组启停费用的观点;文中同时还提出了分摊机组启动费的两种方法-平均分摊法和负荷比例分摊法,并对比了这两种分摊方法对双方经济性的影响。

The features of the fundamental monopoly of electricity network come from its characteristics. The fundamental monopoly of electricity network tends to weaken itself due to the change of network characteristics with the progress of technology. In the future reform of the electricity sector, the influence of competition will spread from electricity power plants and providers to the links of network in the ways of network competitions and power resources competitions.

电网的自然垄断属性源于电网的网络特征。在技术进步的推动下,由于网络特征发生了变化,电网的自然垄断属性趋于弱化。在未来的电力体制改革中,竞争的力量将以网络竞争和能源竞争的方式由发电侧和供电测向中间环节的电网延伸。

 
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