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     Introduces and characterizes graded V rings proves that a graded ring R and the rings which are derived by it, R,Re,R#G are identical on the properties about V rings on the conditions of finite group G type strongly graded ring (| G | is inverse of R , e is the identity of G ).
     引入并刻划了分次 V-环 ,证明在有限群 G-型强分次环 (|G|是 R的逆元 ,e是 G的单位元 )的条件下 ,分次环 R及由它导出的非分次环 R,Re,R# G在 V-环性质上是一致的 .
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     WT5BZ]Introduces and characterizes graded Bass rings,discusses the relations among graded rings R and the rings which are derived by it,R,R e,R#G and obtains R,R e,R#G and graded ring R are identical on the properties about Bass rings on the conditions of finite group G type strongly graded rings|G| is inverse of R,e is the identity of G ).
     引进并刻划了分次 Bass环 ,讨论了分次环 R及由它导出的非分次环 R,Re,R# G之间的 Bass环性质的关系 ,得到在有限群 G-型强分次环 ( |G|是 R的逆元 ,e是 G的单位元 )的条件下 ,R,Re,R# G与分次环 R在 Bass环性质上是一致的
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     CYP2A6 is an important drug metabolic enzyme that plays a central role in pharmacology and toxicology. Coumarin and nicodine are mainly metabolized by it.
     CYP2A6是一个在药理和毒理学上均占有重要地位的代谢酶,香豆素和尼古丁主要由它介导转换,并与吸烟疾病密切相关;
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     baneful substance. And that sodium bisulfite at high concentrations,because superfluous HSO_3~- along with by it procreant SO_2 all have blanch action,finally conducing the umbilical orange take place photoinhibition of photosynthesis.
     高浓度NaHSO3溶液因过量的HSO3-以及由它产生的SO2均具有漂白作用,最终导致脐橙发生光合作用的光抑制。
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     The development of the system shows successful application of the virtual technology, digital technology and information technology on vehicles. Practical application indicates the traditional instruments and stereo with single function will be replaced by it.
     车载多功能信息系统的开发是虚拟技术、数字技术和信息技术在车辆上的成功运用,实际应用表明传统的单一功能的仪表、音响将由它取而代之。
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     E(Kn,r), |A| ≤ 1, and n ≤ r min{n + 6,2n - 3}, then Kn,r - A is determined by its cycle length distribution.
     E(Kn,r),|A|≤1,且n≤r≤min{n+6,2n-3),则G=Kn,r-A是由它的圈长分布确定的.
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     The entroφy of field, S. is exφressed as S=X/φ=charge/φotential from which the basic equation grouφ is obtained:S=X/φ,(?) =(dS/dr·(?)
     场熵S=X/φ=荷/位,由它得到场的基本方程组:S=X/φ,F=(ds/(dr)·(?)
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     (2) If |A|=2, and n≤r≤min{n+6,2n-5}, then Kn,r-Ais determined by its cycle length distribution .
     若|A|=2,且n≤r≤min{n+6,2n-5},则G=K_(n,r)-A是由它的圈长分布确定的;
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     (3) If |A|=3, and n≤r≤min{n+6,2n-7},then Kn,r-A is also determined by its cycle length distribution.
     若|A|=3,且n≤r≤min{n+6,2n-7},则G=K_(n,r)-A也是由它的圈长分布确定的。 这里A(?)
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     (4) comb is determined by its Laplacian spectrum;
     (4) 梳图由它的Laplacian谱确定;
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     It was described systematically by H. C.
     H.
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     Pioneered by G.
     最初G.
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     This is an extension of W.
     是W.
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     LZW data compression coding proposed by T.
     T .
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     The power spectrum law's mode of noise established by J.
     J.
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The most important feature of the new algorithm is the admissibility of the trajectories generated by it.
      
The centrosome (centriole) and the cytoskeleton produced by it are structures, which probably determine differentiation, morphogenesis, and switching on the mechanism of replicative aging in all somatic cells of multicellular animals.
      
It is proven that the topological entropy of this mapping, and the shift automorphism generated by it of the corresponding Williams solenoid, equals the logarithm of the maximal eigenvalue of the matrix thus introduced.
      
Bottom dredging and the siltation induced by it have drastically lowered the benthos biomass, changed benthic communities, and altered their trophic structure.
      
A constrained best absorber is defined as a body that absorbs the maximum incident sound power among all of the passive bodies of the same geometry under the condition that the sound power scattered by it is fixed.
      
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差不多所有中国海港的进港航道及内河航道,每年都有大量的回淤。它引起了大量的紧张的疏浚维持工作。最近即将到来的中国出入口货运量及船舶周转率的巨大发展,要求增加现有港口的水深并修建许多新的港口。此外,大型港口庞大的货运量,要求在一年中任何天,任何小时,都能保证进港。这一般要求重新加深一些航道,而水深的增加,以及由它所引起的航道的增长,使每年的疏浚维持工作量,比现在更大。因此,必须在现在就预先采取措施,以便寻求防止中国已建和未来港口回淤的最好方法。在欧美资本主义国家里,防止回淤问题的研究进行了75年(1850—1925),仅在1920年之后,在一些大型港口中,问题得到了成功的解决,而大多数的港口,解决该问题的尝试没有成功。只是当对于回淤及海底地形总的动态,进行了经常性的,足够精确的多年的观测,并用水文计算及水工试验的方法加以综合的研究条件下,问题始能获得成功的解决。但这问题个别的成功经验,没有总结。解放前设计中国主要港口(塘沽,上海,营口,黄埔)的外国人,没有组织为了正确管理港口所必需的经常性的对水流,波浪,泥沙等特性及建筑物本身(航道,导堤情况的观测工作。这些观测,只在最近几年才组织起来,而且完成得远...

差不多所有中国海港的进港航道及内河航道,每年都有大量的回淤。它引起了大量的紧张的疏浚维持工作。最近即将到来的中国出入口货运量及船舶周转率的巨大发展,要求增加现有港口的水深并修建许多新的港口。此外,大型港口庞大的货运量,要求在一年中任何天,任何小时,都能保证进港。这一般要求重新加深一些航道,而水深的增加,以及由它所引起的航道的增长,使每年的疏浚维持工作量,比现在更大。因此,必须在现在就预先采取措施,以便寻求防止中国已建和未来港口回淤的最好方法。在欧美资本主义国家里,防止回淤问题的研究进行了75年(1850—1925),仅在1920年之后,在一些大型港口中,问题得到了成功的解决,而大多数的港口,解决该问题的尝试没有成功。只是当对于回淤及海底地形总的动态,进行了经常性的,足够精确的多年的观测,并用水文计算及水工试验的方法加以综合的研究条件下,问题始能获得成功的解决。但这问题个别的成功经验,没有总结。解放前设计中国主要港口(塘沽,上海,营口,黄埔)的外国人,没有组织为了正确管理港口所必需的经常性的对水流,波浪,泥沙等特性及建筑物本身(航道,导堤情况的观测工作。这些观测,只在最近几年才组织起来,而且完成得远未达到现代科学技术的水平。因此,为了将来拟定中国港口的改建和发展的总计划,必须立刻开始根据统一的方法,对海港水文特征及回淤过程,进行细致的研宄,并将主要的野外观测工作和辅助性的实验室研究工作结合起来。最近几年出现的研究泥沙特性的新方法,使我们有可能,利用新的理论,组织回淤问题质和量的研究。如果这些工作大规模进行,那么就可能在几年内弥补数十年缺乏观测资料的缺陷。依上所述,本文简略地谈谈苏联及一些资本主义国家在防止回淤问题方面的经验。结论中提出了12条互相联系而组成一个综合体的具体建议。这些建议的实现,将保证在已建的中国港口中,合理地组织与防止回淤的工作,和正确的设计未来的港口。

Ethyl cyanoacetate in ethyl alcohol (triethanolamine catalyst) was treated with hydrogen sulfide gas at 408—50° for 60 hours in order to get ethyl thiocarbamylacetate (Ⅰ). Treatment of the crude reaction mixture with 1, 3-dichloroacetone, however, gave 2-methyl-4-chloromethylthiazole hydrochloride (Ⅲ) instead of the expected ethyl 4-chloromethyl-2-thiazolylacetate (Ⅱ). It has been reported that ethyl thiocarbamylacetate (Ⅰ) reacted normally with α-halocarbonyl compounds to form thiazole derivatives. The method...

Ethyl cyanoacetate in ethyl alcohol (triethanolamine catalyst) was treated with hydrogen sulfide gas at 408—50° for 60 hours in order to get ethyl thiocarbamylacetate (Ⅰ). Treatment of the crude reaction mixture with 1, 3-dichloroacetone, however, gave 2-methyl-4-chloromethylthiazole hydrochloride (Ⅲ) instead of the expected ethyl 4-chloromethyl-2-thiazolylacetate (Ⅱ). It has been reported that ethyl thiocarbamylacetate (Ⅰ) reacted normally with α-halocarbonyl compounds to form thiazole derivatives. The method of preparation of Ⅰ in the literature cited consists of treatment of ethyl cyanoacetate in ether (triethylamine catalyst) with hydrogen sulfide at 65—70° for 2 hours. Probably our experimental condition was more strenuous so that Ⅰ suffered further decomposition giving thioacetamide as the result of hydrolysis and decarboxylation. The formation of Ⅲ from thioacetamide is straightforward. As part of a program on the study of physiologically active heterocycles, Ⅲ was treated with diethanolamine and then with thionyl chloride to give the nitrogen mustard, 2-methyl-4-[bis-(2'-chloroethyl)-aminomethyl]-thiazole hydrochloride (Ⅵ).

本文证实了氰乙酸乙酯与硫化氢作用所得的反应液与1,3-二氯丙酮在无水乙醇中反应后,进行昇华,所得的产物是2-甲基-4-氯甲基噻唑盐酸盐。并由它合成了氮芥型化合物2-甲基-4-[双-(2′-氯乙基)氨甲基]噻唑盐酸盐,供作抗肿瘤的试验。

With regard to the relation between the eye cup formation from primary optic vesicle and the presumptive lens ectoderm, the viewpoints were not consistent among investigators. One view held that while the early development of the eye cup was independent of the lens, its further growth was deeply influenced by it (Spemann; '38, P. 56). Another view held that the specificty of the distal wall (the presumptive retina area) of the primary optic vesicle became fixed only when it came in contact with the presumptive...

With regard to the relation between the eye cup formation from primary optic vesicle and the presumptive lens ectoderm, the viewpoints were not consistent among investigators. One view held that while the early development of the eye cup was independent of the lens, its further growth was deeply influenced by it (Spemann; '38, P. 56). Another view held that the specificty of the distal wall (the presumptive retina area) of the primary optic vesicle became fixed only when it came in contact with the presumptive lens ectoderm (Dragomirow, '35). The question whether the transformation of the eye cup from the primary optic vesicle is independent of the lens, or whether the fixation of the retina of the eye cup is dependent upon its contact with the presumptive lens ectoderm remains to be proved. It is stated in literatures that the isolated parts of the eye vesicle after transplantation might differentiate into braintissues (Dragomirow, '33; '60), and the isolated eye vesicles under cultivation in salt solut- ion might differentiate into eyetissues as well as braintissues ('46). Thus there arises the question, does the primary optic vesicle possess dual potency both for the eye formation and the braintissue differentiation? In order to solve the problem, two sets of experiments viz. the transplantation and the extirpation experiments are adopted. In the transplantation experiments the primary optic vesicles of embryos at stage 16 of Rana nigromaculata and R. japonica is divided into distal-middle and proximal-thirds, each respectively is transplanted into the head and belly of another embryo of the same stage. In the extirpation experiments one third or two thirds of the material of the primary optic vesicles of embryos at stage 16 or 17 of R. nigromaculata and R. limnocharis are removed, and let the remnant to develop further with the presumptive lens ectoderm intact or without the presumptive lens ectoderm. The results of the grafting experiments (cf. Table 1) clearly demonstrate that the distal-thirds of the primary optic vesicles show the highest frequency in the regulation of eye cup formation (60.7%), but lowest in brain tissue differentiation (7.1%), while the proximal-thirds exhibit the highest frequency in brain tissue differentiation (76.9%), but lowest in the regulation of eye cup formation (11.5%). The middle-thirds show a mean ratio of both eye cup formation (29.6%) and brain tissue differentiation (18.5%) between the two extremes. It seems that there appear two opposite gradients, one for eye cup formation with the apical point at the distal-thirds gradually weakened dawn towards the proximal part, aud the other for brain tissue differentiation with the apical point at the proximal-thirds weakened down towards the distal part. This agrees with the view of ('60, P. 115), who suggested that the brain could develop from the apical part of the material of an early eye cup, but its morphogenetic potency and size could be strengthened progressively towards its basal part. Based on the results of our experiments as well as on literatures that the material of eye rudiments from the stages of open medullary plate up to that of early eye cup can differentiate into brain tissues (Alderman. '35; Dragomirow, '33; Лопашов, '46, Vennecof, '47, a, b,), it has been shown that the eye rudiment possesses dual potency of morphogenesis both for eye formation and brain tissue differentiation. The results of the experiments of extirpation are as follows (cf. table 2). When the distal-thirds together with the middle-thirds of the primary optic vesicles from embryo at stage 16 are excised, or when the proximal-thirds together with the middle-thirds of the vesicles from embryo at stage 17 are excised, provided the presumptive lens ectoderm is intact, the remnants are either the proximal-thirds in the first case, or the distal-thirds in the second case, they always regulate to form well-organized eye cups. However, when both the distal-and the middle-thirds of the vesicles from embryo at stage 17 are excised, provided the presumptive lens ectoderm is also extirpated, no eye cup is formed from the surviving proximal-thirds. The results of the above experiments showy that the presumptive lens ectoderm exerts a definite influence upon the eye cup formation from the substances of the primary optic vesicles. It also agrees with the fact that a secondary eye cup can be produced from the tapetum of the primary eye cup through the inducing action of the presumptive lens ectoderm (Dragomtrow, '39) If only the distal-thirds of the eye vesicles are excised, the substances of the remaining two-thirds, inspire of the absence of the lens anlage, can regulate to form wellorganized eye cups. This shows that the regulation of eye. cups from fragments of eye vesicles depends upon the quantity of the eye-forming substances, and not upon the influence of the lens anlage, though the latter exerts influence upon the eye vesicles to promote eye cup formation. If the eye-forming material is not sufficient to regulate to form an eye, there will be no way to form an eye cup. This is exactly the view of Dragomirow ('33). Basing on the above account, we come to the conclusion that in any way the presumptive lens ectoderm certainly can exert influence upon the eye vesicles in promoting the formation of eye cups, especially when the material is insufficient, and the regulation of eye cups from fragments of vesicles is dependent upon the presence of sufficient material, but not upon the lens anlage. The conclusion follows that either after the distal-thirds together with the middle-thirds or after the middle-thirds together with the proximal-thirds of the primary optic vesicles are excised, the brain wall together with the remaining material under the stimulation of the presumptive lens ectoderm forms an eye cup. This proves that the presumptive lens ectoderm not only excites the eye-forming material to promote the eye cup formation, but also invokes the embryonic brain walls to take part in the organization of the eye. Thus on the one hand the eye-forming material can differentiate into brain tissues, on the other hand the embryonic brain tissues can also form eyes, they both have the potency for eye formation and brain formation.

通过移植和切除的试验结果,证明蛙胚眼泡的远、中、近三部分都有调整成眼杯和分化为脑组织的可能,因而确定眼泡是一个具有双重发生潛能的原基。试验並发现眼泡的这种发生潛能表现出两端不同的极性,呈现出方向相反的两个级度,成眼最高点在远端而成脑最高点在近端。试验又证明预定水晶体外胚层的接触诱导确有促进眼泡材料转变眼杯的作用。但另一方面亦表明在成眼材料足够时,卽使没有预定水晶体存在亦有可能调整成眼杯。(不过在后一情形仍须考虑到由四周生拢弥合的外胚层在接触眼泡材料后,有转变为次生预定水晶体的可能,因而或许仍可由它发生影响。)从试验中发见预定水晶体外胚层又能激发蛙胚间脑产生出眼。最后根据眼泡能分化脑和间脑能产生眼的事实,表明眼泡与间脑对於发生眼与脑都没有到最后决定而是在可变性决定阶段。

 
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