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交际     
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  communication
     Pragmatic Vagueness as a Strategy in Chinese Verbal Communication
     语用含糊——汉语言语交际中的策略
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     Cross-Cultural Verbal Communication: A Perspective of Interactive Pragmatics and Rhetoric
     跨文化言语交际:互动语用修辞观
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     C-R-A Model: A Tripartite Account of Verbal Communication
     C-R-A模式:言语交际的三维阐释
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     A Pragmatic Study of Fictional Communication
     小说交际语用研究
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     On Conception differences in Cross-cultural Communication
     跨文化交际的观念差异
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  communicative
     Multidimensional Approach of Communicative Structure of Russian Sentences
     俄语语句交际结构的多维研究
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     Corpus-based Study of Chinese EFL Learners' Oral Communicative Ability: Prefabricated Chunks, Schemata, Pragmatic Features and Strategies in the COLSEC
     基于语料库的中国英语外语学习者口语交际能力研究:COLSEC中的预构成语块、图式、语用特征及策略
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     Developing Communicative Competence
     交际能力目标与教师的职责
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     On the Communicative Functions of English Intonation
     论英语语调的交际功能
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     On English for Special Purposes (ESP) and the Communicative Principles in Teaching
     专用英语(ESP)及其教学中的交际性原则
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  intercourse
     Homophonic Culture and Speech Intercourse
     谐音文化与言语交际
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     Pragmatic Failure in Cross-cultural Intercourse and English Teaching
     跨文化交际中的语用失误与英语教学
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     On the Stride Culture Intercourse and Foreign Language Teaching
     跨文化交际与外语教学
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     Influence of Colloquial English and Predicting on Listening Level and Daily Social Intercourse
     口语英语和预测因素对听力水平和日常交际的影响
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     See the Change of the Oral Intercourse Teaching Target Orientation from the Difference of the New and the Old Course Standard——Supplementary Talk about the Characteristics of Oral Intercourse and Its Leading meaing to Oral Intercourse Teaching
     从新旧课程标准的差异看口语交际教学目标取向的转变——兼及口语交际的特点及其对口语交际教学的引导意义
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  communicational
     Discussion About Communicational Method and English Teaching
     交际法与英语教学探讨
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     Task-based and Cross-cultural Internet Communicational Teaching
     任务型教学与跨文化网络交际
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     College English Teaching and the Cultivation of Intercultural Communicational Competence
     大学英语教学与跨文化交际能力的培养
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     The Influence of Cultural Elements on Communicational Behaviors
     浅析文化因素对交际行为的影响
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     Cultural factor is the very important factor for teaching English well and learning English well. Language is a communicational tool and important means of culture transmission.
     文化因素是教好英语,学好英语之非常重要的因素,语言是交际工具、是文化传播及传承的重要手段。
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  communication
When either a node or a link in a fault-tolerant network fails, the communication from one node to another using this faulty element must be sent via one or more intermediate nodes along a sequence of paths determined by this routing.
      
An important and practical problem is how to choose a routing in the network such that inter-mediate nodes to ensure communication are small for any fault-set.
      
By using DR estimation of the state, the effect of communication delays is overcome.
      
A new dynamic routing algorithm based on MANET in LEO/MEO satellite networks, which fits for the LEO/MEO satellite communication system, is proposed.
      
Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) system is the ultimate selection as an optical communication system because of its high speeds and capacities.
      
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  communicative
Disturbance pheromone in the common toad (Bufo bufo) larvae: The possible communicative role of ammonium-containing excretions
      
The linguistic intonations expressed: various communicative types of sentences; completeness/incompleteness of a statement; various types of the syntagmatic segmentation of the statements; various logical stress.
      
No significant differences were found in the perception of various communicative types of sentences and statements with different syntagmatic segmentation.
      
Communicative pulsed signals of beluga whales in the reproductive gathering off Solovetskii Island in the White Sea
      
Results of the perceptive and acoustic analysis of communicative pulsed signals recorded in a reproductive gathering of beluga whales off Solovetskii Island in the white sea are presented.
      
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  intercourse
On the other hand, these women reported sexual intercourse less frequently than did those without a history of rape.
      
The proportion of adopted girls with suicidal thoughts was significantly larger, they also reported school truancy, not using safety belts, sexual intercourse, unpleasant sexual encounters, and contact with illicit drugs more often than the controls.
      
The disease has been disruptive and has affected many basic aspects of my life, such as my ability to walk, sleep and have sexual intercourse.
      
Eighty-four per cent had experienced passive anorectal intercourse.
      
For women, and for homosexual men who have had passive anorectal (or oral) intercourse, the indication for attendance for tests for gonorrhoea should be having run the risk, and not the presence of symptoms.
      
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  communicational
The involvement of a large number of evolutionarily conserved communicational facilities and patterns of intercellular interactions is underscored.
      
Towards communicational strategy for activation of economic development in the light of contemporary changes
      
These are the first experimental evidences that the lateral line sense is involved in the communicational behavior of the fish.
      
It is supposed that the majority of trophallactic contacts serve communicational purposes rather than being idle food transfer attempts.
      
Consequently, they have the effective potentiality to play a communicational role in the organization of colony activities.
      
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  其他


CA has been extensively researched and found to affect about 20 percent of America's school population to the extent that those affected are being called handicapped and treated as learning-disabled in many places. The exploratory research reported here indicates similar incidence in a small group sample of Chinese college students. Further research in the People's Republic of China seems important since CA has been found to cause a negative impact on learning.Numerous methods to reduce CA have been tested in...

CA has been extensively researched and found to affect about 20 percent of America's school population to the extent that those affected are being called handicapped and treated as learning-disabled in many places. The exploratory research reported here indicates similar incidence in a small group sample of Chinese college students. Further research in the People's Republic of China seems important since CA has been found to cause a negative impact on learning.Numerous methods to reduce CA have been tested in America, and several are being utilized at the college level. Should the CA level be as high in the . People's Republic of China as the research suggests, those methods may prove valuable in reducing CA among Chinese as well.

本文讨论交际畏怯心理(Communication Apprehension,以下简称CA)在教育上的效果,兼谈作者对一部分中国大学生进行CA调查的结果。CA是指在实际或预期与人进行交际时感到的紧张害怕心情。CA的表现方式很多,只有少数几种,如说、写、唱的CA,有人对之进行过仔细的研究。本文主要谈口语交际中的CA。具有高度CA的人,几乎在一切说话场合,不论人多人少,都感到害怕或紧张,他们总是极力避免说话,不得不说话时,总是表现出羞怯紧张,缺乏自信,言不尽意。这种人拙于交际,难以给人良好印象,因而在经济、政洽、社交、学业各方面都受到不利影响。在学校里,在教师和同学心目中,他们显得缺乏信心和主张,怕冒风险,遇事随大溜,沉默寡言,难以了解,冷漠不易亲近;在社交上和对于异性吸引力较小;交际、办事和自持的能力也不如其他学生。教师一般认为这种学生的总的学业成绩、对人关系以及学习前途各方面都不如人。他们在大学里的总平均分数、小班学习分数、统一测验成绩等都低于别人,尽管他们中有许多人智力水平很高。CA的成因尚未完全探明。CA与遗传无关,是个人后得的特点,通常养成于童年...

本文讨论交际畏怯心理(Communication Apprehension,以下简称CA)在教育上的效果,兼谈作者对一部分中国大学生进行CA调查的结果。CA是指在实际或预期与人进行交际时感到的紧张害怕心情。CA的表现方式很多,只有少数几种,如说、写、唱的CA,有人对之进行过仔细的研究。本文主要谈口语交际中的CA。具有高度CA的人,几乎在一切说话场合,不论人多人少,都感到害怕或紧张,他们总是极力避免说话,不得不说话时,总是表现出羞怯紧张,缺乏自信,言不尽意。这种人拙于交际,难以给人良好印象,因而在经济、政洽、社交、学业各方面都受到不利影响。在学校里,在教师和同学心目中,他们显得缺乏信心和主张,怕冒风险,遇事随大溜,沉默寡言,难以了解,冷漠不易亲近;在社交上和对于异性吸引力较小;交际、办事和自持的能力也不如其他学生。教师一般认为这种学生的总的学业成绩、对人关系以及学习前途各方面都不如人。他们在大学里的总平均分数、小班学习分数、统一测验成绩等都低于别人,尽管他们中有许多人智力水平很高。CA的成因尚未完全探明。CA与遗传无关,是个人后得的特点,通常养成于童年初期。幼时说话受不到正面鼓励,或竟受到责罚,往往造成CA。身体受外伤有时也导致CA。CA通常都是在学前期形成,偶尔也有出现于入学之后。教师和同学的态度也有影响,可以增强,也可以减弱CA,但这种变化十分缓慢,一般不易觉察。CA的存在情况,在美国进行过较多的研究,其他国家的情况研究不多。本文作者采取在美国用过的个人填报的方式,对一部分中国大学生进行了选样调查,结果表明这种心理在中国学生中也是存在的。所用办法是让276名北京外国语学院的学生填写调查表,调查表共有20个项目,都是关于与人进行言语交际时的个人感受(如“我不怕面对听众”,“我乐于在会上发表意见”,“我参加小组讨论时心里感到紧张”之类),答案对所陈述的情况表示肯定或否定,分为:1.同意,2.很同意,3.说不好,4.不同意,5.很不同意。要求调查对象据实填写,然后即据此数字定分。中国学生的调查结果,经分析后又与美国夏威夷大学的397名学生使用同法的调查结果作了比较,发现这两部分学生的CA总平均分数相差颇大,受调查的中国学生为61.21,夏威夷大学学生为63.34。中国学生的CA与美国全国标准数60.45相差无几。CA分数在61—70之间者定为中等,71—80之间为高度,80以上为严重。受调查的中国学生CA高度的占16.3%,严重的占3.1%,二者合计为19.4%。这样的学生,在美国就要被认为在言语上有缺陷。上述研究结果,只是初步探讨性质,因为这是跨文化的比较,也牵涉到认识和方法上的困难,调查人数有限,代表性也不足。但是这个选样调查可以表明CA在一般中国大学生中是存在的,因而值得作进一步的研究。鉴于CA有种种不利后果,有必要寻求减轻之道。美国交际问题学者试验过各种方法。本文简要介绍了三种方法,都已实际应用于美国学校,并被认为效果很好。一种叫系统除敏法,是让学生在实验室内做一套放松和消除神经紧张的练习,学生可以看到自己在说话场合中的情状,然后通过放松肌肉的练习来抵消在此情境中的紧张反应。另一种是在修习交际课程的学生中挑选出CA较高的学生,编入人数较少的特别班,对其进行口头应对训练,特别着重针对具体情况的应付方法进行教和练。再一种是夏威夷大学所采用的方法,既做实验室除敏练习,又在说话训练课程中进行减轻CA的特别训练。学生先练二人对谈,再进到小组交谈,最后做当众演说。采取此法训练的结果,学生的CA总是有显著的改变。

Being a hard nut in the foreign language teaching and a unique feature in the German language, the modal particles have drawn in recent years more and more attention in the field of linguistics and, as a result, significant achievements have thus been made in some of their specific studies. However, little has been discussed so far with respect to the grammatical categoay of modal particles as well as their scope. Therefore, in order to make the study of these particles serve directly the purpose of grammar-teaching,...

Being a hard nut in the foreign language teaching and a unique feature in the German language, the modal particles have drawn in recent years more and more attention in the field of linguistics and, as a result, significant achievements have thus been made in some of their specific studies. However, little has been discussed so far with respect to the grammatical categoay of modal particles as well as their scope. Therefore, in order to make the study of these particles serve directly the purpose of grammar-teaching, this paper attaches primary importance to the problem of whether or not modal particles can be used as an independent, terminal part of speech in relative comparison with other parts of speech.Based on the comprehensive analysis of the results attained by previous scholars, the present writer puts forward some new approaches the general aspects of the modal particles both in syntax and in semantics. Of more importance are the results of this study, showing definitely that in terms of syntax, modal particles have a bearing on the complete sentence and that they have no value as to be a member of the sentence. By combining with the concept of "Beziehungserwartung", the present writer has made further an explanation to the independent semantic function, the function of colouring (Abtonung). These results make it poissble for the writer in a more reasonable sense to seperate the modal partecles from the categories of other parts of speech, and recognize, from personal corpus, 26 lexigraphical units as members of modal particles.Taken only as a conclusive remark, this paper was originally written in German and was put into Chinese before publication. In so doing, part of its substantial theoretical discussion and analysis are left out and the example sentences are condensed to a minimum extent.

德语语气词作为一种独特的语言现象和外语教学的难点,近年来愈来愈受到语言研究界的重视。目前,语气词的研究虽有了显著成果,但对语气词的范围和语法归属问题的论述不多.为使语气词研究能更直接地用于语法教学,本文在前人研究成果的基础上,就语气词的句法、语义及交际功能等方面的主要特征进行综合分析,提出了个人见解.作者以语气词独特的句法功能为主要依据,将语气词独立地划为一个词类,并确定了廿六个语气词及其在四大句类中的分布情况.

As tht demand for English increases, more and more English textbooks under various headings are being produced, for example, Structural English, Functional English, Communicative English and so on. What then is, if any, the difference between them? Which to be chosen? How to make good use of them? All these alike questions have often puzzled some learners of English.To reveal the nature of these puzzles, this paper attempts to give a brief introduction to some ideas in applied linguistics which have long influenced...

As tht demand for English increases, more and more English textbooks under various headings are being produced, for example, Structural English, Functional English, Communicative English and so on. What then is, if any, the difference between them? Which to be chosen? How to make good use of them? All these alike questions have often puzzled some learners of English.To reveal the nature of these puzzles, this paper attempts to give a brief introduction to some ideas in applied linguistics which have long influenced the teaching and learning of English as a foreign language, and to the realization of these ideas in teaching materials and methods.After presenting some guestions about the nature of language and the process of language learning, this paper analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the various alternative answers to them. In the hope that it will benefit the readers in their teaching and learning of English.

随着对英语教学研究的日益深入,名目繁多的英语教科书不断问世。例如:结构英语、功能英语,交际英语等。它们到底有何区别?应该选用哪一种教材?如何充分利用它们?一些英语学员对诸如此类的问题常感不解。为揭示这些疑问的实质,本文简单介绍一些对英语教学影响较深的应用语言的观点,以及这些观点在教学材料和教学方法中的体现。本文还分析了各种不同观点的长处和不足之处,以期望能对读者在英语教学中有所帮助。

 
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