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     TWO FACTORS EFFECTING DETONATION PARAMETERS MEASURED BY THE ELECTROMAGNETIC GAUGE OF U-TYPE
     U型电磁速度计测量爆轰参数时影响结果的两个因素
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     Under optimal reaction conditions,i. e. :a ratio of n(2,4-dinitrophenol)∶n(potassium hydroxide)∶n(benzyl chloride)∶n(KI)=1∶1∶1.17∶0.81,a microwave power of 320 W and an irradiation time of 3 min,the yield of 2,4-dinitrophenolbenzylether reached 89.28%.
     采用单因素实验法,考察了反应物的物质的量比、微波功率和辐射时间等因素对收率的影响,结果表明:在聚乙二醇200存在下,当n(2,4-二硝基酚)∶n(KOH)∶n(氯化苄)∶n(KI)=1∶1∶1.17∶0.81、微波功率为320 W、辐射时间为3 min时,收率89.28%。
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     This experiment studied four kinds of substrates of raising rice seedlings: ordinary soil, nutrition soil, organic substrate ,organic substrate and ordinary soil, which had different effect on qualities in rice seedling.
     研究了普通土、营养土、有机基质、有机基质+普通土4种育秧基质对水稻机插秧苗素质的影响,结果表明:有机基质相对于其他3种基质培育的秧苗植株高大,叶片颜色深绿,叶绿素含量、可溶性糖含量高;
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     It was discussed that the effects of extracting pressure, temperature and time on the extraction efficiencies of the camellia oil by supercritical CO2.The optimal extracting conditions are determined: extracting pressure 25MPa, the temperature 40℃ and the time 2.5 hours. The extraction efficiencies of camellia oils was up to 97.5%.
     研究了超临界CO2萃取茶油时,萃取压力、温度、时间对茶油提取率的影响,结果表明,萃取压力25MPa,温度40℃,萃取时间为2.5h时,茶油的提取率达到97.5%。
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     The factors of time, temperature which influence saponification were simply studied. The optimum conditions for saponification: 1h, 60℃. Under these conditions, a fatty acid yield of 93.2% was obtained, and the product contained 5.72% EPA, 10.55% DHA and 4.83% DPA.
     研究了3种因素即皂化时间、乙醇/水(v/v)比例和皂化温度对海狗油皂化效果的影响,结果显示较好的皂化条件为皂化时间1h、乙醇/水(v/v)比例6∶1、皂化温度60℃,在此条件下脂肪酸的产率为93.2%,其中含EPA5.72%、DHA10.55%和DPA4.83%。
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     The results show that the influences are obvious.
     结果表明,影响是明显的。
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     Results The effect of CHA by fertilization was N>P>K.
     结果 施肥的影响为 N>P>K。
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     Result s:l.
     结果
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     Results: USE has direct cytotoxic effect on cultured VSMCs.
     结果
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  impact results
We assume that the perception of (alleged) media impact results in real behavior and therefore should play an important role in media effect theories.
      
Present electron impact results are compared with the recent work of McCarthy et al.
      
Absolute cross sections have been obtained by normalization on proton-impact results.
      
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The natural vegetation of Shantung Province, in the north temperate zone, is of the aestisilvae type. As the natural conditions vary in different parts of this province, the vegetation may be divided into the following four regions: 1. Alluvial plain of the Yellow River: This region is located at the northern part of this province. The saline soil is unfavorable for the growth of most plants. The following plants are characteristic: Tamarax chinensis, Apocynum venetum, Suaeda salsa, S. glauca, Artemisin capillaris,...

The natural vegetation of Shantung Province, in the north temperate zone, is of the aestisilvae type. As the natural conditions vary in different parts of this province, the vegetation may be divided into the following four regions: 1. Alluvial plain of the Yellow River: This region is located at the northern part of this province. The saline soil is unfavorable for the growth of most plants. The following plants are characteristic: Tamarax chinensis, Apocynum venetum, Suaeda salsa, S. glauca, Artemisin capillaris, Aeluropus littoralis, Miscanthus sinensis, Phragmites karka, Carex sp. etc.. 2.Western Shantung plain: This region is located at the western part of the province. Most of the land is under cultivation and the soil is rich in calcium. There is no forest. The common trees are Populus tomentosa, P. alba P. davidiana, Ulmus spp. etc., and the herbaceous plants are Cynodon dactilon, Digitaria sanguinalis, Echinochloa colonum, Imperata cylindrica, Chenopodium album, Convolvulus chinensis,Xanthium japonicum, Crypi saculeata, Scirpus maritimus etc.. Plants which grow in the lake district largely belong to Phragmites communis, Scirpus maritimus, Zizania latifolia, Euryale ferox, Trapa bispinosa etc.. 3.Central South hilly region: This region has mostly been transformed into farms for a long time. On the hilly region there are still some remnant forests. The important trees are Pinus tabulaeformis, Biota orientalis. Quercus acutissima, Q. variabilis, Betula chinensis, Tilia mongolica etc.. On account of calcareous soil in this region, Biota orientalis is found most extensively. Gramineae leads all other herbaceous plants in abundance. The following species such as Arundinella amomala, Bothriochloa ischaemum, Setaria viridis, Pennisitum flaccidum etc. have a wide distribution. 4. Shantung Peninsula: The common native plants in this region are Pinus densiflora, Quercus dentata, Q. acutissima, Robinia pseudoacacia, Acer mono etc.. Pious densiflora is a native plant which grows all over the hilly region. Herbaceous plants are mostly Thymus serpyllum, Setaria viridis, S. lutescens etc.. Due to the oceanic climate with higher precipitation and humidity, plants enjoy a more vigorous growth than those in other regions. There develops a richer flora, some even with warm temperate elements.

山东省之位置属于温带,植物分布为落葉闊葉林區,但在鲁中南及膠東區爲丘陵地带,落葉闊葉樹乃與針葉樹成混交林澑鶕∧谥匀粭l件,可将植物分布情况列為四區: 1.黃河冲積平原區:位於北部,為黄河三角州地帶,土壤含鹽分甚重,不宜於植物之生長。樹木只有檉柳、茶棵子等;草本以黄鬚菜、鹼蓬、茵陳蒿,獐毛、芒、蘆葦、黑三稜草等最為砇姟?2.魯西平原區:為西部之黄河冲積平原,多為農田,土壤含鈣甚多。區內無森林,常見之樹木有毛白楊、白楊、山楊、榆等?荼居泄费栏ⅠR唐、芒稷、白茅、藜、旋花、蒼耳、隱花草、荆三稜等。湖泊區域多蘆葦、荆三稜、蒲姜草、芡、菱等。3.魯中南區:為丘陵地區,平緩部分已闢為農田。山區有殘留森林,主要樹種為油松、侧柏、麻櫟、栓皮櫟、堅樺、椴等;土壤石灰質,側柏之繁盛為共特點。草本以禾本科為最多,常見的如野古草、白羊草、狗尾草、白草等,此外如細葉莎草、雞眼草、蚊子草等亦為砇姟?4.膠東區:在山東半島部份,主要樹種為赤松、洋槐、麻櫟、五角楓等,赤松自山麓至山上均有分佈,且為其鄉土,此乃本區之特徵;草本以蚊子草、狗尾草、金狗尾草為最多。在海灘地上少有高大樹木,常見樹種如洋槐、旱柳等均為栽培者,野生木本植物有酸棗...

山东省之位置属于温带,植物分布为落葉闊葉林區,但在鲁中南及膠東區爲丘陵地带,落葉闊葉樹乃與針葉樹成混交林澑鶕∧谥匀粭l件,可将植物分布情况列為四區: 1.黃河冲積平原區:位於北部,為黄河三角州地帶,土壤含鹽分甚重,不宜於植物之生長。樹木只有檉柳、茶棵子等;草本以黄鬚菜、鹼蓬、茵陳蒿,獐毛、芒、蘆葦、黑三稜草等最為砇姟?2.魯西平原區:為西部之黄河冲積平原,多為農田,土壤含鈣甚多。區內無森林,常見之樹木有毛白楊、白楊、山楊、榆等?荼居泄费栏ⅠR唐、芒稷、白茅、藜、旋花、蒼耳、隱花草、荆三稜等。湖泊區域多蘆葦、荆三稜、蒲姜草、芡、菱等。3.魯中南區:為丘陵地區,平緩部分已闢為農田。山區有殘留森林,主要樹種為油松、侧柏、麻櫟、栓皮櫟、堅樺、椴等;土壤石灰質,側柏之繁盛為共特點。草本以禾本科為最多,常見的如野古草、白羊草、狗尾草、白草等,此外如細葉莎草、雞眼草、蚊子草等亦為砇姟?4.膠東區:在山東半島部份,主要樹種為赤松、洋槐、麻櫟、五角楓等,赤松自山麓至山上均有分佈,且為其鄉土,此乃本區之特徵;草本以蚊子草、狗尾草、金狗尾草為最多。在海灘地上少有高大樹木,常見樹種如洋槐、旱柳等均為栽培者,野生木本植物有酸棗、舖地胡枝子等;草本植物多蘆葦、狗尾草等。此區氣候由於受篞笳{節,雨量與溼度亦較高,故植物生長較其他三區繁盛,種類亦較多,亞熱带植物之分布亦多於他處,尤以海邊低地為甚。在自然地理上,秦嶺、淮河一線是中國南北氣候和土壤的重要分界線,也是植物的重要分界線。但是從山東的植物分布上,可以知道這條線並不能絕然的将植物分為南北二部分,因為山東仍是一个過渡的地帶,許多南方植物在魯南及膠東沿海都有分佈,如黄檀、山胡椒、烏桖、厚朴、王蘭、木犀、黄楊、谜葉樹等多种。在另一方面,北方植物分佈至山東為其最南界限者如糠椴、遼珍珠梅、遼磯松、榛等;而赤松、蒙古機、蒙椴等則南达苏北之雲台山。由此可加,山東之植物分佈上,仍在秦嶺、淮河一線之範圍内,如以淮河來作為植物之南北分界線,则并不能完全符合實際情况,尤以膠東沿海低地,南方植物種類繁多,可與淮河流域相此。因此,此一分界线之東端似有北移之必要。山東植物之分佈乃由環境条件综合影響之結果,但在不同地区,各種因素之作用並不一致,由於地形、土壤、温度和水分等之区别而使植物分布不同。本文所举植物種类和分布地點都是從各項资料所得到,作者将其分為四區,並初步提出了這種分区的理由和形成不同分布的原因。但限於材料的不够完全和水平的淺薄,因此本文的內容很不充實, 只能作为令後进一步研究山东植物地理的基础,希望大家提出补充和指出不正确的地方,而使这一项工作能够顺利的完成。

Thorium selenite precipitated from homogeneous solutions containing thorium nitrate, selenious acid and acetamide by hydrolytic neutralization of nitric acid, is crystalline and easily filtered and washed. With an excess of selenious acid about 0.014 M, thorium can be quantitatively precipitated at a pH value about 1.8. Two to 50 mg of ThO2 can be precipitated, dissolved in hydrochloric acid and titrated with sodium thiosalfate solution. Maximum absolute error is 0.14 mg and maximum relative error is 0.3 %,...

Thorium selenite precipitated from homogeneous solutions containing thorium nitrate, selenious acid and acetamide by hydrolytic neutralization of nitric acid, is crystalline and easily filtered and washed. With an excess of selenious acid about 0.014 M, thorium can be quantitatively precipitated at a pH value about 1.8. Two to 50 mg of ThO2 can be precipitated, dissolved in hydrochloric acid and titrated with sodium thiosalfate solution. Maximum absolute error is 0.14 mg and maximum relative error is 0.3 %, unless the quantity of ThO2 is less than 10 mg. Rare earths up to ten times that of thoria can be quantitatively separated by a single precipitation, provided the pH value of the solution is kept between 2.0-2.3. Reprecip-itation is not necessary if pH value is carefully controlled.Recommended Procedure. To the solution containing thorium and rare earth salts are added 5 ml of 1:1 nitric acid, 10ml of 1% solution of SeO2 and 5g of acetamide The solution is diluted to about 100ml and heated on the hot plate until precipitation begins and heating is continued for about 30 rain. Ten ml cf a buffer solution (2.10 M in hydrochloric acid and 2.00 M in sodium acetate) are added after cooling and the mixture is allowed to stand for an hour. The precipitate is filtered, washed three or four times with 0.2% selenious acid solution buffered at pH 2 and then seven or eight times with 95% aldehyde-free or absolute ethanol. Tl.e precipitate is dissolved in 2 N hydrochloric acid, diluted to about 100ml and titrated with sodium thiosulfate solution according to Rowley and Swift.

自硝酸溶液里利用乙(月先)胺的水解逐渐降低酸度的方法,可得晶状的亚硒酸钍。沉淀可溶于盐酸,用硫代硫酸钠溶液满定。用此法测定钍简单而准确。误差一般在0.1mg以下,至多不超过0.14mg。相对误差最高为0.3%,但如果ThO_2含量少于10mg,则误差较大。少量希土盐不影响结果。如果希土盐含量较高,沉淀时溶液的pH值须严加控制,最好将沉淀溶解并再沉淀一次。

An experimental verification of the theoretical peak current equation forreversible electrode reactions of the Randles-Sevcik oscillopolarography, i_p=Kn~(3/2)D~(1/2)m~(2/3)θ~(2/3)α~(1/2)cμΑ, is carried out with both single- and multisweep methods. Themultisweep method is essentially that of Delahay, while a simplified circuit isdevised for the single-sweep procedure. The constant K in the above equation has been worked out by Randlesand Sevcikc, but their values differ by some twenty-one percent. Experimentalresults...

An experimental verification of the theoretical peak current equation forreversible electrode reactions of the Randles-Sevcik oscillopolarography, i_p=Kn~(3/2)D~(1/2)m~(2/3)θ~(2/3)α~(1/2)cμΑ, is carried out with both single- and multisweep methods. Themultisweep method is essentially that of Delahay, while a simplified circuit isdevised for the single-sweep procedure. The constant K in the above equation has been worked out by Randlesand Sevcikc, but their values differ by some twenty-one percent. Experimentalresults as to which K value is correct have been contradictory. The authorspoint out that Sevcik's value of K is too low, due to the error in choosing too largea unit in his numerical integration. By taking smaller units and reperformingthe integration, the K value increases and approaches that of Randles. Thus thecorrectness of Randles' K value is ascertained and this value is used in calculatingthe theoretical slope. Their single-sweep results, with concentrations from 2×10~(-4) to 1×10~(-3) m/l andα~(1/2) from 1 to 4 volts/sec, agreement between experimental and theoretical slopesis obtained in the case of Tl~+ in m NaCl. In the case of Cd~(++) in m NaCl, experi-mental results deviate from the theoretical value, and the deviation increases withincreasing c and α~(1/2). Contrary to an unproven idea of Delahay, i_p obtained bymultisweep method is higher than that by the single-sweep procedure. However,in calculation of the theoretical values, a value of 15.0×16~(-6) obtained by polarLographic method is used for D of Tl~(+) in m NaCl. The use of the value of Dat infinite dilution is thought to be unjustified. If a D value of 15.0×10~(-6) is used,Delahay's results of Tl~+ in KNO_3 would be higher than the theoretical equationinstead of agreeing with it. This fact seems to support the findings of this paper. Various methods of correcting for capacity currents are compared and discus-sed. The authors point out that at α~(1/2) less than 2 volts/sec, the method of drawingan hbrizontal line introduces no appreciable error while at, high α, various methodsyield different results. This fact lowers the accurraey of data obtained at high α. The iR drop in the electrolytic cell and on the series resistance causes themeasured α to be different from the a actually applied on the drop electrode. Anelementary approximate correction of this effect is mentioned. Results after thiscorrection show that the deviation of Cd~(++) from theoretical at high c and α maybe due partly to this effect.

(1)以单波法及多波法验证Randles-Sevcik示波极谱理论公式之i_p~c及i_p~α~(1/2)关系,多波法用Delahay线路,单波法则用简化线路。单波法之结果,对亚铊离子在m氯化钠中,在2×10~(-4)~1×10~(-5)m浓度,α~(1/2)为1及4伏特/秒,实测结果和理论符合。镉离子在m氯化钠中,实测结果与理论有偏差,偏差随浓度及α~(1/2)加大而加大。多波法之i_p实测值高于单波法。 (2)在计算理论曲线时,作者肯定Sevcik之系数过低而采用Randles数值。亚铊离子于m氯化钠中之扩散系数D,采用极谱法测得之数值15.0×10~(-6)而不用无限稀时之D值(20.0×10~(-6))。 (3)在α~(1/2)低于2伏特/秒时,可用画水平线法扣除电容电流。在高α时各种扣除电容电流方法所得结果不同,影响结果之可靠性。 (4)电解池线路上之iR降使加在滴汞电极上之α改变。这种改变使实测i_p值偏低。作者曾作初步近似修正,结果说明α及浓度大时,镉离子实测数据对理论的偏差的一部分可能是由于iR降的作用。

 
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