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     In order to determine the conditions under which the added calcium in secondary refining process can form CaS or modify Al_2O_3 inclusions,the equilibrium diagrams for the Fe-Al-Ca-O-S system at 1 600 ℃ and 1 550 ℃ were obtained by means of thermodynamic calculation.
     为了确定钢液炉外精炼过程中加入钙使Al2O3夹杂物变性或与硫生成CaS的条件,通过热力学计算得出了1 600℃和1 550℃时Fe-Al-Ca-O-S系的平衡图。
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     In order to determine desulfurising ability of the top-slag in LF refining process, the variation of sulfide capacity with composition in the slag system CaO-SiO_2-Al_2O_3-MgO (5%) at 1 627 ℃ was illustrated by means of calculating the optical basicity.
     为了确定LF精炼过程中顶渣的脱硫能力,通过对光学碱度的计算,得出了1627℃时CaO SiO2 Al2O3 MgO(5%)渣系组成与硫容量的关系图。
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     In order to determine the new exploratory formation,this paper analyzed the He and Ar isotopic composition of 8 natural gas samples from 5 oil fields or structures in the Qaidam Basin and discussed their tracing significance in tectonic backgrounds,geothermal flow and gas source.
     为了确定柴达木盆地勘探新层系,测试并分析了该盆地5个油气田的8个天然气样品的氦、氩同位素比值,探讨了其在大地构造背景、大地热流和气源方面的示踪意义。
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     In order to determine reasonable dimensions of mechanical arm, the elastic dynamics equation of mechanical arm was established by applying the method of finite element, the elastic dynamic response of mechanical arm under different sectional dimensions was solved, and the elastic vibration of mechanical arm was evaluated.
     为了确定合理的机械臂截面尺寸 ,运用有限元法建立了机械臂的弹性动力学方程 ,求解了不同截面尺寸下的机械臂弹性动力响应 ,评价了机械臂的弹性振动。
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     In order to determine the size of each part of PMA, the variations of each parameter were simulated in dynamic course of breaking and closing.
     为了确定操动机构中各个部件的尺寸,对该操动机构的分、合闸动态过程中各个参数的变化规律进行了仿真设计。
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     To determine their chromosome location, 1.35 kb BSD-84-BamHI and BED-20-BamHI cDNA fragments were used as probe to investigate the presence of the genes on human lymphocyte chromosome.
     为了确定这两个基因在染色体的位置,一个1.35kb的BSD-84-Bam HI cDNA片段与另一个1.65kb的BED-20-BamHI片段被用作探针,分别与人的染色体进行原位杂交。
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     Objective: Monoclonal antibodies to human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were established and characterized to determine the role of VEGF in tumor and metastasis.
     目的:为了确定人血管内皮细胞生长因子(Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor,VEGF) 在肿瘤生长及转移中的作用。
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     The expression of ST3GalV distinctly increases in the highly metastatic 4T1. To determine whether ST3GalV plays a causal role in tumor metastasis, three ST3GalV gene knockdown 4T1 cell lines are established.
     为了确定ST3GalV是否在肿瘤转移中有关键作用,我们利用RNAi技术建立了三株4T1的ST3GalV基因敲除(knockdown)细胞株。
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     In ordor to determine the polymorphism of IRS-1 gene 5 ' -UTR, -898bp-+5bp region of IRS-1 gene 5'-regulatory region of 76 subjects with Type 2 diabetes and 78 healthy controls were studied by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) , single strand conformation polymorphism(SSCP) assay and denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and AgNO3 staining techniques.
     为了确定IRS-1基因5′-调控区可能存在的多态性,本文采用PCR-SSCP技术和变性聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳及银染分析,对76例2型糖尿病患者和78例正常对照IRS-1基因5′-UTR调控区-898bp~+5bp之间的序列,进行多态性扫描分析。
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     In order to establish the optimal temperature for drying thin layer day-lily, t he experiment was carried out in dry hot temperature of 60,70,80,90 and 100 ℃ r espectively.
     为了确定薄层黄花菜的最佳干燥温度,将薄层黄花菜分别在60,70,80,90,100℃温度下进行干燥试验.
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     and E.
     确定为E .
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     Aims: To determine the frequency, etiology, mortality of extreme elevations of serum AST.
     为了确定血清AST极度升高的发生率。
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     FOR THE WORLD CUP
     为了世界杯
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     Determinination of L-pretopologies
     L-预拓扑的确定
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     In order to study the factors influencing color-change after soaping of C.
     为了研究C.
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In order to determine the kinship of the offsprings in 2001, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to examine the parenthood of seven Tibetan Eared-pheasants in the Beijing Zoo.
      
In order to determine the demands for water resources of ecological wetland system, a method of ecological water level coefficient was suggested to calculate the water resources demands for wetland environment use.
      
This collection can be used to test spacecraft production materials, in order to determine their resistance to biodegradation.
      
Thus, in order to determine the damping of turbulence near a wall according to the Van Drist model, harmonic oscillations of a plate are considered [2].
      
In order to determine the flow parameters the unsteady Euler equations of gas dynamics, supplemented by the continuity equations for the chemical components that compose the dissociated air, are solved numerically.
      
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前燃料工业部电业管理总局东北设计分局于1952—1953年曾设计了东北某地22万伏高压送电线路。在苏联专家维金尼科夫的指导下,由于设计分局和东北电业局同志们的努力.该线路于1954年1月27日胜利地全部建成。由于初次从事这项工作,设计部门缺乏经验,为了验证设计方法是否正确,铁塔工作是否可靠,特于1953年6月间进行了线路中为数最多的直线铁塔的真形实验。铁塔结构是参考苏联酒杯形铁塔型式进行设计的,高25.3公尺。由于该线路所在地区的地形对结构的要求,以及受当时施工条件的限制,因而采用螺栓结构,材料为钢3,四脚分别置于混凝土预制基础上。为了消除试验时基础可能产生位移而影响铁塔的试验结果起见,将基础特别加强。试验按照各种设计的受力情况进行,包括正常情况、事故情况及超荷情况;并将作用于导线及塔身的全部风力以当值风压代替,集中作用于横梁上。用经纬仪在塔的四面测定塔在受外荷作用时的挠曲情况,用千分表(因受当时设备条件的限制)测定主要构件的变形,再由变形推出构件中的应力大小。由于用千分表在高空观测构件的变形极为困难,同时实验前的准备工作亦不足,因而测定主要构件的应力极不准确,只能从塔身的变化结果来判断铁塔的工作。根据测得的...

前燃料工业部电业管理总局东北设计分局于1952—1953年曾设计了东北某地22万伏高压送电线路。在苏联专家维金尼科夫的指导下,由于设计分局和东北电业局同志们的努力.该线路于1954年1月27日胜利地全部建成。由于初次从事这项工作,设计部门缺乏经验,为了验证设计方法是否正确,铁塔工作是否可靠,特于1953年6月间进行了线路中为数最多的直线铁塔的真形实验。铁塔结构是参考苏联酒杯形铁塔型式进行设计的,高25.3公尺。由于该线路所在地区的地形对结构的要求,以及受当时施工条件的限制,因而采用螺栓结构,材料为钢3,四脚分别置于混凝土预制基础上。为了消除试验时基础可能产生位移而影响铁塔的试验结果起见,将基础特别加强。试验按照各种设计的受力情况进行,包括正常情况、事故情况及超荷情况;并将作用于导线及塔身的全部风力以当值风压代替,集中作用于横梁上。用经纬仪在塔的四面测定塔在受外荷作用时的挠曲情况,用千分表(因受当时设备条件的限制)测定主要构件的变形,再由变形推出构件中的应力大小。由于用千分表在高空观测构件的变形极为困难,同时实验前的准备工作亦不足,因而测定主要构件的应力极不准确,只能从塔身的变化结果来判断铁塔的工作。根据测得的塔形变化结果可得下列结论:1)结构受重复荷重时,变形与荷重关系曲线中的剩余变形随荷重次数之增加而减少,即全结构的弹性模数随荷重次数之增加而提高,最后形成封闭环形;2)由变形荷重曲线可见第三点以下的变形稳定较早,可见膈材对结构的变形性质有良好影响。3)由各种实验的变形曲线的规律来看,结构中并无特别弱的局部缺陷部分;4)实测挠度皆比计算值大,特别是初次加荷的情况。因而铁塔结构的强度是安全可靠的,不过挠度和理论计算值相差过大,为了确定原因起见,继续在实验室内进行了螺栓接头的实验研究工作,并得出了螺栓接头的平均弹性模数值。最后建议在进行螺栓结构的挠度计算时,应将各焊件分成接头部分和非接头部分来计算,而整个结构则按照平均折算模数计算。根据螺栓接头的试验结果,按平均折算模数求得的铁塔挠度为:初次受荷时实测值小于计算值,重复受荷时实测值约和计算值相等。据此,足以证明铁塔设计是正确的,结构工作完全安全而可靠。

In order to determine the workability of cast iron with spheroidal graphite,the following tests have been conducted on this material in the as-cast and annealed condition:tensile tests,compression tests,Charpy impact tests,impacttensile tests,twisting tests,upsetting tests under the drop hammer and small-scaledrolling tests.Results from these tests show that the best hot-working temperature rangeof this material varies somewhat with the stress system applied and the speed ofworking,and in general lies between...

In order to determine the workability of cast iron with spheroidal graphite,the following tests have been conducted on this material in the as-cast and annealed condition:tensile tests,compression tests,Charpy impact tests,impacttensile tests,twisting tests,upsetting tests under the drop hammer and small-scaledrolling tests.Results from these tests show that the best hot-working temperature rangeof this material varies somewhat with the stress system applied and the speed ofworking,and in general lies between 700° and 1100℃.Within this temperaturerange,the maximum amount of working permissible for a single working operationvaries considerably with the stress system applied.Under tensile stresses,thismaximum amount of working lies between 28 and 57.6%;under predominentlycompressive stresses,it lies between 58.5 and 72.9%;while in the small-scaledrolling tests,the maximum reduction in thickness permissible for a single passlies between 38.6 and 44.3%.The maximum amount of working permissible is alsoaffected by the speed of working,being greater at lower speeds.Tests on industrial scale show that the upsetting and small-scaled rollingtests give results nearest to those from industrial tests.Charpy impact tests,impacttensile tests,upsetting tests and small-scaled rolling tests show more prominentlythe best hot-working temperature range than the other tests conducted.Results of the present research also indicate that cast iron with spheroidal graphitehas a higher strength and workability when subjected to compressive stresses thanto tensile stresses,that a brittle temperature range has been recorded between200° and 650℃,which varies with the speed of test.Judging from the variationof the resistance to deformation with the change of temperature and the speedeffect,this phenomenon is associated with blue brittleness.

为了确定球墨铸铁的可塑性,曾进行了铸态和铸态经墨化热处理后的球墨铸铁在不同温度下的抗张试验、抗压试验、冲击弯曲试验、冲击抗张试验、撚扭试验、顶锻试验和小型压延试验庑┦匝橹赋?球墨铸铁的最好热加工温度范围随着应力体系和加工速度的不同而略有不同,但一般介于700℃和1100℃之间。在此温度范围内球墨铸铁能够耐受的最大加工量依所受的应力体系而有相当大的差別。在张应力作用下,此最大加工量介于28—57.6%之间,在主要为压应力作用下,介于58.5—72.9%之间;在小型压延试验中,其最大加工量则介于38.6—44.3%之间。最大加工量亦受速度的影响:实验室的试验指出,球墨铸铁在比较低速下加工有较高的塑性。在比较接近生产的条件下的试验结果指出:顶锻试验和小型压延试验给予最靠近生产试验结果的数值。冲击弯曲、冲击抗张、顶锻试验和小型压延试验给予比较明确的最好热加工温度范围,其他试验则不能给予很明确的结果。如果采用了测压仪、小型压延试验,还可以提供变形阻力的资料。试验结果指出:球墨铸铁在压应力作用下比在张应力作用下有较大的强度和塑性;其中温变脆温度依试验速度的变化而在200°—650℃之间变化,根据变形阻力和变...

为了确定球墨铸铁的可塑性,曾进行了铸态和铸态经墨化热处理后的球墨铸铁在不同温度下的抗张试验、抗压试验、冲击弯曲试验、冲击抗张试验、撚扭试验、顶锻试验和小型压延试验庑┦匝橹赋?球墨铸铁的最好热加工温度范围随着应力体系和加工速度的不同而略有不同,但一般介于700℃和1100℃之间。在此温度范围内球墨铸铁能够耐受的最大加工量依所受的应力体系而有相当大的差別。在张应力作用下,此最大加工量介于28—57.6%之间,在主要为压应力作用下,介于58.5—72.9%之间;在小型压延试验中,其最大加工量则介于38.6—44.3%之间。最大加工量亦受速度的影响:实验室的试验指出,球墨铸铁在比较低速下加工有较高的塑性。在比较接近生产的条件下的试验结果指出:顶锻试验和小型压延试验给予最靠近生产试验结果的数值。冲击弯曲、冲击抗张、顶锻试验和小型压延试验给予比较明确的最好热加工温度范围,其他试验则不能给予很明确的结果。如果采用了测压仪、小型压延试验,还可以提供变形阻力的资料。试验结果指出:球墨铸铁在压应力作用下比在张应力作用下有较大的强度和塑性;其中温变脆温度依试验速度的变化而在200°—650℃之间变化,根据变形阻力和变脆温度范围的变化可以比较肯定地认为这是一种蓝脆的现象。

During the great leap of 1958, there occurred on the railroads a general phenomena of nonconformity between demand and supply of transportation facilities. On the Shanghai-Nanking line, this contradiction seemed to be extraordinary serious. At present, the Shanghai Railway Administration has already taken measures to satisfy the increasing demand of transportation facilities, among which increase of train speed being one of the most important measures. In order to make definite the possibility of further increase...

During the great leap of 1958, there occurred on the railroads a general phenomena of nonconformity between demand and supply of transportation facilities. On the Shanghai-Nanking line, this contradiction seemed to be extraordinary serious. At present, the Shanghai Railway Administration has already taken measures to satisfy the increasing demand of transportation facilities, among which increase of train speed being one of the most important measures. In order to make definite the possibility of further increase of train speed on the Shanghai-Nanking line, we, together with Shanghai Railway Administration and Scientific Research Bureau of Ship Construction, made two experimental studies of track stresses during last september and January of this year near Hen-Lin Station. Owing to the fact that these two experiments are both of trial nature, the data obtained are far from enough and complete, this paper gives only a brief description of the experimental method of determining track streses and preliminary analysis of the data obtained.

1958年大跃进中,铁路上普遍出现了运输能力和运输需要不相适应的现象。在沪宁线上,这个矛盾表现得特别突出。现在,上海铁路管理局已经采用各种方法,来满足日益增长的运输需要,其中提高行车速度是最重要的措施之一。为了确定在沪宁线上进一步提高行车速度的可能性,我校于去年九月及今年一月间,在上海铁路局及船舶科学研究所的协作下,先后在横林车站进行二次线路强度的实际测定。由于这二次测定都是探索性质的,积累的资料还远不够充分齐全,因此本文仅就线路强度的测定方法及初步分析结果,作一个简单的介绍。

 
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