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     Environmental Cost Model of Material Product and its Application
     材料产品环境成本评价模型及其应用
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     Almost all the metallic products,building material ,machinery and military products have direct relations with it, and it has positive effect on the quality inspection and scienfific research.
     几乎所有的金属材料产品与制品及建筑、机械、军工产品等,都直接与之发生紧密的联系,对冶金产品检验质量的控制和科研等方面起着积极作用。
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     Monitoring and Analysis on Product Quality of Netting Material in China in 2002~2003
     2000~2003年全国渔具材料产品质量监测和分析
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     Shrinkage and warpage of thermoplastic material part
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     These investigations may accelerate the development of programs on the production of effectively biodegradable PVA-based materials.
     这些研究促进了可有效生物降解的PVA类材料产品项目的发展。
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     By analyzing the worldwide developing trend and domestic situation of nonferrous metal industry, the basic reason that internal nonferrous metal industry lacks effect and competition in the international market was investigated, and its developing direction was put forward.
     通过对当今世界有色金属工业发展趋势和我国有色金属工业现状的分析 ,进一步探讨了我国目前有色金属工业在国际市场上难于形成影响力和竞争力的根本原因 ,提出了我国有色金属工业发展对策。 高技术有色金属新材料产品创新能力确定了行业企业的市场竞争地位。
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This paper deals with the key problem and its solutions of energy saving in heating houses today by analyzing building energy consumption from the viewpoint of energy shortage in china. The statistical figures from the Ministry of Building Material Industry show that the total amount of energy used in building material industry is 5833×10~4 tonne/annum of standard coal, and up to 54.2% of them are consumed in producing common clay bricks and tiles. This is partly due to the unreasonable production structure...

This paper deals with the key problem and its solutions of energy saving in heating houses today by analyzing building energy consumption from the viewpoint of energy shortage in china. The statistical figures from the Ministry of Building Material Industry show that the total amount of energy used in building material industry is 5833×10~4 tonne/annum of standard coal, and up to 54.2% of them are consumed in producing common clay bricks and tiles. This is partly due to the unreasonable production structure of wall materials, and that is the reason why the energy consumption in building material production is so high. Therefore, the important measures taken by the authorities to derease the energy consumption in building construction are to decrease the energy consumption in building material production, adopt lower energy consumpt- ion materials and products, and readjust the production of wall materials in particular. According to the latest statistics, the ratio of energy consumed in building construetion in the heating regions to that consumed in use for household is 1: 7~16. Accordingly, more efforts must be made to minimize the energy consumption in building construction, especially in building heating, than in the use for household. The key problems concerning housing energy saving are presented as follows: (1) Low thermal efficiency in heating system, bad designing of the architectural function and the rapid growth of housing construction, resulting in a rapid rising in energy demands for building heating; (2) The necessity to increase thermal insulation capability of the enclosing walls to a rational extent; (3) Speeding up the production of new-type building materials (a foundamental solution for increasing in wall thermal insulation capacity). It has been verified that building thermo-technical design should not only be based on the hygienic conditions but also on energy saving and its social-economic efficiencies. The rational mothod of improving the thermal insulation capacity is to design a building enclosing structure according to "economical thermal resistance". With the aim of energy saving, the authors proposed that a limit should be set for the large-scale production of common clay bricks which leads to a higher energy consumption, and that several new kinds of building mate- rials for wall construction, such as rock-wool, aerated concrete, expanded perlite etc., should be developed as "energy saving wall materials". A feasibility study for developing such materials has been made with reference to their social-economic efficiencies. Finally, the authors made some suggestions that support should be given to the speedy development of these new-type building materials.

本文从我国的能源形势及建筑节能的紧迫性出发,分析了采暖地区住宅建筑的能耗构成及当前建筑节能中存在的问题与解决途径。根据国家建材局能源处的统计资料,全国每年建材生产耗能总数为5833万吨标准煤,其中高达54.2%的能源消耗于普通粘土砖瓦生产,这是由于建材产品结构的不合理所造成,它是建材生产能耗过高的原因之一。因而降低建造能耗的主要途径在于降低各种建材的生产能耗,采用能耗低的建材和制品,建材部门要着手调整我国墙体材料的产品结构。又根据最近的调查资料,在采暖地区建筑物的建造能耗和使用能耗之比为1:7~16,因此,我们既要重视建造能耗的节约,更要重视使用能耗的节约,而且必须把注意力放在供暖能耗方面,采取各种有力的节能措施。文章列举了我国住宅建筑节能中的几个突出问题,它们是: (1)当前采暖房屋中的严重问题是热效率低,建筑功能差,加以住宅建设速度的加快等原因引起采暖能耗迅速增长。 (2)建筑节能的核心问题是要合理提高房屋保温隔热质量。 (3)提高房屋保温隔热质量的根本出路是要大力发展新型建筑材料。文章还论证了建筑热工设计不应只立足于卫生要求,更应立足于节约能源及其社会经济效益。按“经济热阻”设计外围护结构是一种较为合理...

本文从我国的能源形势及建筑节能的紧迫性出发,分析了采暖地区住宅建筑的能耗构成及当前建筑节能中存在的问题与解决途径。根据国家建材局能源处的统计资料,全国每年建材生产耗能总数为5833万吨标准煤,其中高达54.2%的能源消耗于普通粘土砖瓦生产,这是由于建材产品结构的不合理所造成,它是建材生产能耗过高的原因之一。因而降低建造能耗的主要途径在于降低各种建材的生产能耗,采用能耗低的建材和制品,建材部门要着手调整我国墙体材料的产品结构。又根据最近的调查资料,在采暖地区建筑物的建造能耗和使用能耗之比为1:7~16,因此,我们既要重视建造能耗的节约,更要重视使用能耗的节约,而且必须把注意力放在供暖能耗方面,采取各种有力的节能措施。文章列举了我国住宅建筑节能中的几个突出问题,它们是: (1)当前采暖房屋中的严重问题是热效率低,建筑功能差,加以住宅建设速度的加快等原因引起采暖能耗迅速增长。 (2)建筑节能的核心问题是要合理提高房屋保温隔热质量。 (3)提高房屋保温隔热质量的根本出路是要大力发展新型建筑材料。文章还论证了建筑热工设计不应只立足于卫生要求,更应立足于节约能源及其社会经济效益。按“经济热阻”设计外围护结构是一种较为合理的方法,它有助于改善房屋的保温隔热质量。文章提出了应当控制能耗高的普通粘土砖的盲目发展,建议大力发展岩棉、加气混凝土、膨胀珍珠岩等新型建筑材料作为“节能型”墙体材料,对此作了可行性及其社会经济效益的研究及论证分析,在技术经济政策上提出了如何促进、扶助新型建筑材料的发展的一些看法和建议。

Magnesia-carbon brick is recently developed as a new refractory products in the wrold, after this material used the lifetime of furnace lining is prolonged, in a broad sense it is a new type of energy-saving material. Now many countries are developing the production technique of magnesia-carbon brick. In this paper the developing process about the production technique of magnesia-carbon brick and its application to all kinds of furnaces are introduced, and some key problems needing solved fcr producing much...

Magnesia-carbon brick is recently developed as a new refractory products in the wrold, after this material used the lifetime of furnace lining is prolonged, in a broad sense it is a new type of energy-saving material. Now many countries are developing the production technique of magnesia-carbon brick. In this paper the developing process about the production technique of magnesia-carbon brick and its application to all kinds of furnaces are introduced, and some key problems needing solved fcr producing much more magnesia-carbon brick are presented.

镁碳砖是国际上新兴的耐火材料产品,它的使用延长了炉衬的使用寿命,是一种广义的新型节能材料。各国都在大力开发镁碳砖生产技术。本文介绍了我国此项生产技术的开发过程及所产镁碳砖在各种炉子上的应用,并提出了多生产镁碳砖应解决的关键问题。

A study of pressure sensing elements which are made of low-resistivity CZ silicon crystal (8~12Qcm) with deep-irradiation has been completed. The main contents are as follows, (l) The trace heavy metal impurities in the new CZ and FZ Si are measured by the neutron activation analyzing method to look into the improved growth technique of natural single crystal. (2) Under the same condition of deep-irradiation,the CZ,FZ Si beta radioactivity decay curves which were obtained by the track measurement with a low-backgrouod...

A study of pressure sensing elements which are made of low-resistivity CZ silicon crystal (8~12Qcm) with deep-irradiation has been completed. The main contents are as follows, (l) The trace heavy metal impurities in the new CZ and FZ Si are measured by the neutron activation analyzing method to look into the improved growth technique of natural single crystal. (2) Under the same condition of deep-irradiation,the CZ,FZ Si beta radioactivity decay curves which were obtained by the track measurement with a low-backgrouod beta device are same. This means that the CZ Si can be doped with NTD process just as same as the FZ Si. (3) The process study of NTD for low-resistivity CZ Si has been completed if the value of electron mobility is properly selected in accordance with the target resistivity and the value of doping coefficient K is dertermined by experiments, the doping accuracy can be ensured and remarkably raised. Comparing with the normal doping method, the doping hitting accuracy is incresed from 40% to 90%?the radial nonuniformity Ap is less then 5% and the radical microarea nonuniformity Apm is less then 3-5%. The first batch of irradiated products of low-resistvity NTD CZ Si has been used for the pressure sensing elements. The results are satisfied and the performance of pressure sensing elements has reached to the prescribed standard. The rate of qualitied and high quality products has been increased from 40% to 60%.It is obvious that the NTD CZ Si is much better than the ordinary CZ Si.

对压敏器件用低阻NTD CZ Si(直拉硅)的深辐照工艺进行了研究,主要包括三个方面内容:(1)配合自然单晶生长工艺的改进,对CZ与FZ单晶痕量重金属杂质进行中子活化分析。(2)在同样深辐照条件下对CZ与FZ单晶的β-低本底剩余放射性进行跟踪测量,所得到的放射性强度衰减曲线表明CZ与FZ是一致的,同样可以采用NTD技术。(3)低阻CZ硅单晶中子嬗变掺杂工艺研究,根据目标电阻率,适当地选择电子移率μ_c值,通过实验与校正,得到合理的掺杂系数K值。保证掺杂精度,使晶体掺杂的命中率获得显著提高,与常规掺杂相比由原来的40%提高到90%左右。径向不均匀性Δρ≤5%,径向微区不均匀性Δρ≤3~5%。首批量低阻CZ NTD硅的研制及其压敏器件生产中的应用,获得良好的效果,压敏器件性能达到规定标准,并明显地优于普通CZ硅材料的产品,成品率和优品率由40%提高到60%。

 
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