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Earthquake analysis of arch and gravity dams including the effects of foundation inhomogeneity


Damfoundation interaction plays an important role in the design of earthquakeresistant concrete arch and gravity dams.


In this paper, the effect of foundation inhomogeneity on the seismic response of arch and gravity dams was studied by means of scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM).


Therefore, taking into account the effect of foundation inhomogeneity for the earthquake safety assessment of concrete arch and gravity dams has great significance.


The calculated results are in good agreement with experimental data, which can be used as a guide for the design of arch dams and other mass concrete structures.

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The plasma mechanism of radio emission in the coronas of latetype stars is shown to be considerably more efficient than that in the solar corona because of the high plasma temperature in their magnetic arches.


The effect of oil potential and deepseated tectonics on the trace element composition of soils was exemplified along several seismic profiles across the Southern Tatar and Northern Tatar arches.


The second distinction of the fantail from other fish, including the carp Cyprinus carpio of the same family Cyprinidae, is the absence of some muscles of the upper parts of the gill arches, such as dorsal rectus muscles (m.m.


recti dorsales), adductor muscles of gill arches (m.m.


During the last 30 years, 7 children, 2 to 24 months old, and one 29yearold woman with double aortic arches have been treatedatour institution.

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Does Epicurus need the swerve as an archê of collisions


The model is applied to the seismic response analysis of an arch dam with a height of 292m designed to a seismic intensity of IX.


the crosssectional area function, is determined so as to minimize the total volume of an arch under given external load (radial pressure) and the critical time.


The paper examines the impact of exchange rate volatility on trade using an ARCHinmean model.


Behind the anterior commissure, they ran in an archshaped posterior and inferior course in the hypothalamic nuclei and joined the mamillary body anterolaterally.

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 An approximate and rapid method for computing the stresses and shape constartts of elastic arches is presented in this paper. The fundamental idea of this method lies in the fact that the variation of the elastic area (ds/EI) of the arch with respect to x can be represented approximately by an elementary algebraic function which can be determined with but little labor. After this function is found, all necessary computations can be done by direct integration instead of the usual tedious arithmetic summation.... An approximate and rapid method for computing the stresses and shape constartts of elastic arches is presented in this paper. The fundamental idea of this method lies in the fact that the variation of the elastic area (ds/EI) of the arch with respect to x can be represented approximately by an elementary algebraic function which can be determined with but little labor. After this function is found, all necessary computations can be done by direct integration instead of the usual tedious arithmetic summation. Formulas reduced to the final forms are presented for use, and two numerical examples are given to show the practical procedure and the degree of approximation.  本文目的在提出一種求拱應力及拱常数的近似算法。主要關鍵在求出一能近似表示拱截面ds/EI變化之代數式,使各項計算均得由直接積分完成,避免分段計和,因而極爲簡便。最後結果以公式表示,其準確程度巳敷實際需要,必要時可予提高。  1. In South Sinkiang, eggs deposited by the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria migratoria L., in Aug. 1952 hatched ih the latter part of April, and adultsemerged on June 6 the following year. This species has only one generation ayean and the eggs remain underground for a period of 8 months. 2. Calliptamus italicus L. can be easily identified by the presence of a longprosternal spine between the fore coxae. The distal portion of the cercus inthe male individual is divided into three lobes, the middle one... 1. In South Sinkiang, eggs deposited by the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria migratoria L., in Aug. 1952 hatched ih the latter part of April, and adultsemerged on June 6 the following year. This species has only one generation ayean and the eggs remain underground for a period of 8 months. 2. Calliptamus italicus L. can be easily identified by the presence of a longprosternal spine between the fore coxae. The distal portion of the cercus inthe male individual is divided into three lobes, the middle one being shorterthan the upper one. 3. Heavy damage was done to pasture land by Gomphocerus sibericus L.. Thisspecies is characterized by the swellen terminal segments of the antennae. Inthe male individuals, the tibiae of the fore legs are also enlarged. 4. Dociostaurus kraussi Ing. may be identified by the presence of an Xshaped marking on the pronotum and the much eniarged markings on themetazone. 5. Ramburiella turcomana FW. has a slant face Which meets the vertexat an acute angle. Besides the Xshaped marking on the pronotum, there isanother broad line running along the median ridge. 6. The distinguishing Character of the grasshopper Oedaleus decorus Germ.is the blackish band that runs across the hing wings. The pronotal medianridge is high, with a very promineat Xshaped marking on its sides. 7. In Sphingonatus salinus (Pall) the small prozone with a high median ridge,and the two bands across the hind wings are quite characteristic. 8. In this paper distributions of the abovementioned species are listed. Descriptions of the egg capsules and the sculpturing on the egg shells have beenmade for the purpose of facilitating specific identification in the field.  (一)新疆蝗虫种类繁多,发生为害面积亦大。1953年全新疆发生面积为762,000公顷,共防治95,703公顷。经两年来的初步观察,蝗虫中为害性较大,分布较普遍的有下述九种。 1.迁移飞蝗一年发生一代。1952年8月所产之卵,最早于1953年4月下旬孵化,至6月6日变为成虫。蝗卵在地下发育阶段,长达8月之久。 2.意大利蝗主要特征在其突出之前胸腹板刺;前胸背板有中脊和侧脊;雄虫尾须末端分裂为三叶,中叶之末端不及上叶末端。 3.西伯利亚蝗为牧区中牧草的大敌害。成虫主要特征为触角末端变粗;雄虫前足胫节膨大如梨状。 4.克鲁斯蝗沟后区上之花纹变宽,成三角形;前翅不超过后足膝部;后足胫节红色。而鞑靼蝗沟后区上的花纹前端并不变粗。 5.侧视土克曼蝗头部倾斜;前胸背板上除有较长大的X形图案外,中脊上尚有纵行花纹;后足腿节和胫节黄色,间隔以黑色斑纹。 6.轮翅蝗前胸背板之中脊拱起,其两侧有X形图案;后翅基部淡黄绿色,中部有一条宽而弯曲的黑色条纹,不及后翅的后缘。 7.盐地圆背蝗沟前区小而狭隘;后翅基部淡红色,中部及翅端各有—条宽的黑色条纹。与盐地圆背蝗相似者,尚有八纹圆背蝗。 (二)对上述九种蝗虫之分布,卵囊及... (一)新疆蝗虫种类繁多,发生为害面积亦大。1953年全新疆发生面积为762,000公顷,共防治95,703公顷。经两年来的初步观察,蝗虫中为害性较大,分布较普遍的有下述九种。 1.迁移飞蝗一年发生一代。1952年8月所产之卵,最早于1953年4月下旬孵化,至6月6日变为成虫。蝗卵在地下发育阶段,长达8月之久。 2.意大利蝗主要特征在其突出之前胸腹板刺;前胸背板有中脊和侧脊;雄虫尾须末端分裂为三叶,中叶之末端不及上叶末端。 3.西伯利亚蝗为牧区中牧草的大敌害。成虫主要特征为触角末端变粗;雄虫前足胫节膨大如梨状。 4.克鲁斯蝗沟后区上之花纹变宽,成三角形;前翅不超过后足膝部;后足胫节红色。而鞑靼蝗沟后区上的花纹前端并不变粗。 5.侧视土克曼蝗头部倾斜;前胸背板上除有较长大的X形图案外,中脊上尚有纵行花纹;后足腿节和胫节黄色,间隔以黑色斑纹。 6.轮翅蝗前胸背板之中脊拱起,其两侧有X形图案;后翅基部淡黄绿色,中部有一条宽而弯曲的黑色条纹,不及后翅的后缘。 7.盐地圆背蝗沟前区小而狭隘;后翅基部淡红色,中部及翅端各有—条宽的黑色条纹。与盐地圆背蝗相似者,尚有八纹圆背蝗。 (二)对上述九种蝗虫之分布,卵囊及卵壳上之花纹,均分别叙及;并附有作者原绘图六幅。在调查蝗虫分布密度及蝗种鉴别上,识别卵囊较有根据。  The socalled "truss rigid frames" are those rigid frames with trusses as their horizontal beams, of which the two ends are rigidly connected to columns. Within the author's knowledge, all the methods available at present for analyzing such rigid frames are based on Certain special assumptions such as (1) that the positions of the points of contraflexure in all the columns are previously known; (2) that the end rotations of a truss may be reprensented by that of its assumed line of axis as in the case of an... The socalled "truss rigid frames" are those rigid frames with trusses as their horizontal beams, of which the two ends are rigidly connected to columns. Within the author's knowledge, all the methods available at present for analyzing such rigid frames are based on Certain special assumptions such as (1) that the positions of the points of contraflexure in all the columns are previously known; (2) that the end rotations of a truss may be reprensented by that of its assumed line of axis as in the case of an ordinary beam; or (3) that the end verticals of trusses may be given certain prescribed deformations. Of course, the adoption of any of such assumptions leads to only approximate results inconsistent with the actual deformations of such rigid frames under any loading. Heretofore, the author did not know any correct method for analyzing such rigid frames. In this paper, the author presents two principles of the correct analysis of truss rigid frames. The first principle is that of "moment action on column" for computing the angle change constants of columns, and the second principle is that of "effect of spanchange in truss" for computing the angle and span change constants of trusses.As, for computing the angle change constants of a truss, the dummy unit moment is a couple applied to its end verticals, so, for computing the angle change constants of a column, the dummy unit moment must also be a couple applied to the section of column rigidly connected to the end of a truss, in order to effect a consistent deformation at the joint of the two. This is the first principle.A truss just like a curved or gabled beam of which the effect of spanchange can not be neglected, so truss rigid frames belong to the same category of what may be called "spanchange" rigid frames such as rigid frames with curved or gabled beams. Therefore the spanchange constants of trusses should be included besides their anglechange constants for analyzing truss rigid frames. This is the second principle.With the constants of columns and trusses are all computed in accordance with respectively the first and second principles mentioned above, truss rigid frames may be analyzed by any method including the effect of spanchange as in the case of rigid frames with curved or gabled beams, and the results thus obtained will be exactly the same as by the method of least work or deflections without any special assumptions.In this paper, after the two principles are described and the formulas for computing the constants of columns and trusses are derived, the correctness of the two principles are then proved by the methods of least work, deflections and slopedeflection. A twospan truss rigid frame is analyzed under the following three conditions:Ⅰ. Applying both of the two principles to obtain the correct results.Ⅱ. Applying only the first principle to show the discrepancies of neglecting the effect of spanchange in trusses as born out by comparing the results of Ⅱ with Ⅰ.Ⅲ. Applying neither of the two principles, and the truss rigid frames being analyzed by the special assumption (2) mentioned above with the line of axis at the bottom chord of truss, in order to show the discrepancies of neglecting the moment action on column as born out by comparing the results of Ⅲ with Ⅱ. For the sake of brevity, only the results are given in Tables 1 to 5 without computations in details.Although the discrepancies of neglecting the moment acticn on column are only slight as shown by comparing the results of Ⅲ with Ⅱ in Tables 2, 4 and 5, there is no reason why special assumptions should not be replaced by the correct principle of moment action on column to obtain correct results. As shown by comparing the results of Ⅱ with Ⅰ in Tables 2, 4 and 5, the discrepancies by neglecting the span change in trusses are generally considerable and, in certain particular part, as large as 3000%. Therefore, for the safe and economical design of truss rigid frames, the effect of spanchange in trusses should not be neglected in their analysis.Finally, for analyzing co  所謂“桁架剛構”即以桁架為横梁与柱相剛接之剛構。現下採用分析剛構之任一方法,以分析此項剛構时,均須採用種種特殊之假定而得近似之結果。據著者所知,中外書刊中似尚无此項剛構之正確分析法。於本文中,著者發表关於桁架剛構正確分析之兩項原理,即柱頂力矩作用与桁架跨变影響之兩项原理。前項原理使柱頂段之角夔与桁架端豎桿相同,以符合柱与桁架剛接处之連续性。後項原理指出桁架与曲梁(即拱)及折梁(即山墙式梁)相同係一種“跨变横梁”,故桁架刚構亦与拱式及山墙式剛構相同,係一種“跨变剛構”。若根據此兩项原理,分别计算柱与桁架兩端的撓曲常数,再用分析跨变刚構之任一分析法以分析此項刚構,則所得之枯果,与不作任何特殊假定用最少功法或变位法所得者完全相同。本文先說明此兩项原理及根據此兩項原理计算柱与桁架撓曲常數之方法。次取一最簡單之桁架刚構为例,證明此丙項原理之正確性。桁架刚構既与拱式及山墙式刚構同属於跨变刚構一類型,分析後者之任何方法均可用以分析前者,本文无須贅述。但取一兩跨之桁架刚構為例,列举所得之正確結果,与用近似法所得者相比较,藉以顯出近似法有相當巨大之差誤。關於階形之複式桁架刚構之分析,本文用“... 所謂“桁架剛構”即以桁架為横梁与柱相剛接之剛構。現下採用分析剛構之任一方法,以分析此項剛構时,均須採用種種特殊之假定而得近似之結果。據著者所知,中外書刊中似尚无此項剛構之正確分析法。於本文中,著者發表关於桁架剛構正確分析之兩項原理,即柱頂力矩作用与桁架跨变影響之兩项原理。前項原理使柱頂段之角夔与桁架端豎桿相同,以符合柱与桁架剛接处之連续性。後項原理指出桁架与曲梁(即拱)及折梁(即山墙式梁)相同係一種“跨变横梁”,故桁架刚構亦与拱式及山墙式剛構相同,係一種“跨变剛構”。若根據此兩项原理,分别计算柱与桁架兩端的撓曲常数,再用分析跨变刚構之任一分析法以分析此項刚構,則所得之枯果,与不作任何特殊假定用最少功法或变位法所得者完全相同。本文先說明此兩项原理及根據此兩項原理计算柱与桁架撓曲常數之方法。次取一最簡單之桁架刚構为例,證明此丙項原理之正確性。桁架刚構既与拱式及山墙式刚構同属於跨变刚構一類型,分析後者之任何方法均可用以分析前者,本文无須贅述。但取一兩跨之桁架刚構為例,列举所得之正確結果,与用近似法所得者相比较,藉以顯出近似法有相當巨大之差誤。關於階形之複式桁架刚構之分析,本文用“代替桁架”之辦法,但只說明其原則,不列出公式及算例。   << 更多相关文摘 
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