Through analysis of precision and advantage & disadvantage for GPS, it has proved that application of GPS in surface current velocity and direction measurement is of highly populization value.

and that in the dam area the cross sectional area of the main channel will be about 30000m~2,the minimum width of the reservoir surface will be about 1200m,when the discharge is 56700 m~3/s,the maximum surface veloci- ty will be less than 3.52m/s;

For reservoirs in Frigid Zone and high altitude area, water surfaces may be covered with ice because of lower air temperature and slower velocity of flow.

The kε twoequation model for turbulent flow and VOF method are adopted to simulate the 3D turbulent flow in shaft spillway with whirling current. The free surface profile, the magnitude and distribution of velocity and pressure, and the air flux are obtained from the calculation.

It is found that the observed values of the pressure are greater, while the surface velocity is lower than the corresponding values predicted by the pseudogas model.

The problem of designing a wing airfoil starting from the surface velocity (or pressure) distribution, given in multi-parameter form, is considered.

The numerical solution of the problem of flow past a plate whose surface travels in the opposite direction to the stream is obtained under the assumption that the surface velocity is higher than the free-stream velocity.

Numerical results reveal the key effects of excitation frequency, cap angle, radiator position (eccentricity), dynamics of the elastic shell, and cap surface velocity distribution on sound radiation.

The free sample surface velocity was measured by a laser differential interferometer.

Prediction of ocean surface current velocity and application to meteorological navigation in the North Pacific

In a river, fruit set was negatively correlated with surface current velocity, and was reduced to zero in current velocities greater than 0.30 m · s-1.

The variation in the sea level difference across the Kuroshio is associated with a variation in surface current velocity as predicted by the theory of geostrophic balance.

Moreover, it is noticed that the seasonal variation in the surface current velocity in the Strait largely contains baroclinic motions which are locally caused in the Tsushima-Korea Strait.

Variations of surface current velocity derived by the TOPEX altimeter are compared with data from Tokyo-Ogasawara Line Experiment (TOLEX)-Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) monitoring for a period from October 1992 to July 1993.

In this paper, an introduction of the main results on cnoidal wave theory is given. By using these results, the difference between the shallow water wave particle velocity calculated by cnoidal wave theory and that calculated by linear wave theory is analyzed. The main difference between them is mentioned as following. When wa- ves propagate from deep water to shallow water, at the beginning, the maxi mum horizontal particle velocity at the water surface calculated by the cnoidal wave theory is much greater...

In this paper, an introduction of the main results on cnoidal wave theory is given. By using these results, the difference between the shallow water wave particle velocity calculated by cnoidal wave theory and that calculated by linear wave theory is analyzed. The main difference between them is mentioned as following. When wa- ves propagate from deep water to shallow water, at the beginning, the maxi mum horizontal particle velocity at the water surface calculated by the cnoidal wave theory is much greater than by linear wave theory, and the maximum horizontal particle velocity at the sea bottom calculated by the cnoidal wave theory is less than by linear wave theory for smaller value of L/d and beco- mes greater gradually when the value of L/d increases, When the wav- continues to propagate forward, the wave dimension gradually approaches to its critical size, the bottom particle velocity calculated by cnoidal wave theory becomes less than by linear wave theory again, due to the increases of H/d. The comparisons between the datacalculated by these two wave theoriese for H/d=0.1, 0.4, 0.78 are shown in Fig. 8. In this paper, the computer block diagram for calculating the shallow wa ter wave deformation by cnoidal wave theory is given also. The results calcu lated by this program are compared with those calculated by linear wave the ory. For the shallow water coefficient of wave length KL, the results calcul ated by cnoidal wave theory are greater than those by linear wave theory, i. e. the wave length decreases slower. For the shallow water coefficient of wave height Ks, the results calculated by cnoidal wave theory may be greater or smaller than by linear wave theory, the comparisons of them are shown in Fig. 11 for T g/d=10.

This paper presents the basic laws of the process of reservoir sedimentation such as the sorting phenomena of the the grain sizes of sediment,the fundamental patterns of reservoir sedimentation and the process of“depositing the coarser and sus- pending the fine”which predominates the variation from the stage of the preliminary e- quilibrium of sedimentation to the state of equilibrium of sediment transport,and the features of the sedimentation process of the suspended load in the Three Gorges Reser- voir,such...

This paper presents the basic laws of the process of reservoir sedimentation such as the sorting phenomena of the the grain sizes of sediment,the fundamental patterns of reservoir sedimentation and the process of“depositing the coarser and sus- pending the fine”which predominates the variation from the stage of the preliminary e- quilibrium of sedimentation to the state of equilibrium of sediment transport,and the features of the sedimentation process of the suspended load in the Three Gorges Reser- voir,such as the delta deposit being the pattern of sediment accumulation,the large sediment delivery ratio in the early stage,the small sedimentation ratio in the fluctuat- ing backwater region and the long dur ation needed to reach the preliminary equilibri- um,etc. The dam area of the Three Gorges Project is a river stretch with wide valley with no abrupt bend and no narrows and shallows,including the reach of the continuous slight bends from Miaohe to Wuxiangmiao and the reaches of Sandouping bend and Letianxi bends.Based on the results of the analyses the calculations and the long series of experiments of the sedimentation models,it was found that after the accumulation of the suspended load in the Three Gorges Reservoir has reached the preliminary equibri- um stage,when the reservoir is operated at the flood limit level,the river regime up- stream of the dam will be more gentle and smooth as compared with the condition be- fore the reservoir filling,in the reaches from Quxikou to Taipingxi and from Taipingxi through Wuiangmiao to Citang—Baoshanzui there will be no longer successive bends as occurred before the reservoir filling;and that in the dam area the cross sectional area of the main channel will be about 30000m~2,the minimum width of the reservoir surface will be about 1200m,when the discharge is 56700 m~3/s,the maximum surface veloci- ty will be less than 3.52m/s;and the hydraulic elements are basically the same as those of the Wuhan reach of the Yangtze River.

The dyke in Jiangqiao Hydrologic Station of Nenjiang River was breached during 1998’s extraordinary floods.The peak flood volume of the section was calculated through analysis of surface velocity efficient,the calculating error was analysed.