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   水面蒸发 在 气象学 分类中 的翻译结果: 查询用时:0.033秒
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  water surface evaporation
Using the water-balance method, the authors studied the water consumption of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and the relationship between evapotranspiration and water surface evaporation measured with 20?cm pan.
      
The accumulative value of evapotranspiration is approximately equal to the accumulative value of water surface evaporation measured using 20?cm pan.
      
Evaporation may be approximated using the mean monthly pan evaporation or free water surface evaporation data.
      
It was also established that there was a corresponding increase in open water surface evaporation during this period.
      
  surface evaporation
Oscillograms of emission at Cu I transitions have two peaks, which may be associated with two phases of surface evaporation of copper: under the action of a Nd3+:YAG laser pulse and radiation of the core of an erosion plasma plume.
      
A special mode of laser action-the surface evaporation-has been experimentally studied on a large number of various materials.
      
The surface evaporation and explosive boiling of water induced by the radiation of a nonchain pulsed HF laser are studied using piezoelectric acoustic pressure transducers.
      
It has been shown that the disintegration of a metastable liquid takes place in the form of a surface evaporation wave with a cellular structure of the front and anomalously high values of the coefficient of heat transfer from the liquid.
      
A method to calculate the surface evaporation wave with a quasi-plane interphase boundary has been developed.
      
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Based on the data of radiation and evaporation from Beijing Solar Radiation Station and Quanting Evaporation Station, the Penman's formula is corrected aswhere HO is the radiation balance expressed in evaporation units, Ea is the "drying power" determined from windspeed and the vapour-pressure deficit. Evaporation from open water may be expressed by equationwhere F is heat flux downward from water surface. During the increasing temperature season its sign is plus, and in decreasing temperature season minus....

Based on the data of radiation and evaporation from Beijing Solar Radiation Station and Quanting Evaporation Station, the Penman's formula is corrected aswhere HO is the radiation balance expressed in evaporation units, Ea is the "drying power" determined from windspeed and the vapour-pressure deficit. Evaporation from open water may be expressed by equationwhere F is heat flux downward from water surface. During the increasing temperature season its sign is plus, and in decreasing temperature season minus. Since we lack the data of water temperature gradiant, F cannot be directly calculated. In this paper it is suggested that the regressive equations of E depending on E0 may be respectively established during increasing or decreasing temperature season. Thus, the monthly values of evaporation in warm season in Beijing may be estimated by following formulas

用北京日射站和官厅蒸发站的辐射和蒸发资料对彭曼公式进行订正,得出修正公式 E_0=(ΔH_0+γE_α)/(Δ+γ) H_0=1/59[0.95Q_A(0.167+0.583n/N)-σT_a~4(0.32-0.26e_a~(1/2))(0.30+0.70n/N)] E_a=0.13(e_a-e_d)(1+0.77u),其中H_0是表示为蒸发量单位的辐射平衡,E_a是由风速和饱和差决定的“干燥力”。 自由水面的蒸发量E可用下式表示 E=E_0-F/L,其中F是水面向下的热通量,在升温季节为正值,在降温季节为负值。由于缺少水温梯度观测资料,F不能直接计算。本文建议,对升温或降温季节分别建立水面蒸发E倚蒸发势E_0的回归方程。得出北京地区各月蒸发量的计算公式如下 0.963 E_0-7.0 4—7月 E=0.902 E_0+26.0 9—10月 E_0 8月

Using Penman's Formula, we computed the natural evaporation Er of Ningxia districts, and studeid its distribution. The ratio Er/r (aridity index) is used as index for agroclimatological division. The formula Er= KtE0 is used to compute E0 for spring, summer and autumn. The proportion coefficient (jt= fc/E0) between E0 andfield evaporation fc is used as a moisture index for major growth periods of wheat, paddy rice and millet. Based on these information, irrigation requirements are studied.

本文利用潘曼(Penman)公式E_0=(ΔH+rE_a)/(Δ+r),计算了宁夏各地自然蒸发量E_r值,分析了E_r的时空分布特征;以E_r/r的比值(干燥指数)作为划分宁夏农业气候区域的指标,并根据E_r=L_iE_0的关系式,订正了宁夏地区春、夏、秋各季的转换系数K_i值;以计算出的农作物各生育期内自由水面蒸发量E_0值和实测田间蒸发量′fc的比例系数(′fc/E_0),作为土壤-植物-近地表层这个系统的水份状况的重要指标,鉴定出了宁夏灌区小麦、水稻、小糜子等主要作物生育期的蒸发系数j_t值和耗水量。用水分平衡方程式,求出了作物灌溉量和生育末期土壤水分储水量,为研究宁夏农业气候区划及建立农作物水分平衡预报,提供了依据。

On the basis of caloric balame and eddy diffusion, H. L. Penman presentedthe Calculating formula about free water surface evaporation under the condi-tion of non advection water vapour transport. Although Penman's formula hascertain theoretical basis, it doesn't consider the influence of changes in heat storage of water body on evaporation quality. On the other hand, H. L. Penm-en uses area empirical formula to calculate radiative equilibrium value and"Drying Force" Ea. It has not been proved yet whether panman's...

On the basis of caloric balame and eddy diffusion, H. L. Penman presentedthe Calculating formula about free water surface evaporation under the condi-tion of non advection water vapour transport. Although Penman's formula hascertain theoretical basis, it doesn't consider the influence of changes in heat storage of water body on evaporation quality. On the other hand, H. L. Penm-en uses area empirical formula to calculate radiative equilibrium value and"Drying Force" Ea. It has not been proved yet whether panman's formuleis available to the arid area in China. This ariticle is trying to test and revisePenman's formula with the data which come from 20 m~2 evaporating poolmeasurement in evaprating experimental station at Hadipo in Xinjiang, Theaccuracy of monthly water surface evaporation quality will be improved withthe revised penman's formula.

彭曼(H.L.penman)在热量平衡和湍流扩散的基础上,提出了无平流水汽输送条件下,自由水面蒸发量的计算公式.彭曼公式具有一定的理论基础,但它没有考虑水体的热量存贮变化对蒸发量的影响.同时,辐射平衡值和“干燥力”E_a的计算,采用了地区性的经验公式.究竟能否适用于我国内陆干旱区,尚未验证.本文试应用新疆哈地坡蒸发实验站20平方米大型蒸发池的实测资料,检验和修正彭曼公式.用修正的彭曼公式计算月水面蒸发量的精度有较大的提高.

 
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