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Using the waterbalance method, the authors studied the water consumption of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and the relationship between evapotranspiration and water surface evaporation measured with 20?cm pan.


The accumulative value of evapotranspiration is approximately equal to the accumulative value of water surface evaporation measured using 20?cm pan.


Evaporation may be approximated using the mean monthly pan evaporation or free water surface evaporation data.


It was also established that there was a corresponding increase in open water surface evaporation during this period.


It has been shown that fast removal of the water (evaporation in this case) from the proteinwater system is crucial for the protein to stay in the nonequilibrium state.


A mechanism of water evaporation is found to be associated with surface electromagnetic waves, which break hydrogen bonds in the highfrequency (≈3×1013 s1) field of the laser.


A transportreaction model of single particle was proposed, which considered the water evaporation from the surface of droplet and the reaction at the same time.


A positive correlation was found between the weight of the water and the water evaporation computed from the hygrometer readings (r = 0.997).


Direct measurement of water evaporation such as by this technique may provide information on sympathetic reactions which could be utilized in both physiological and pathophysiological states.

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Marsh evapotranspiration includes transpiration of marsh plants and evaporation of water surface.


The evapotranspiration of the marsh is one or two times more than the evaporation of water surface in growing season.


When the vegetation coverage of marsh is less than 10%, the daily evapotranspiration of marsh is close to the evaporation of water surface.


The difference between the evapotranspiration of marsh and the evaporation of water surface in sunny days is more than that in cloudy days.


 其他 

 Based on both panmeasured method and experience formula method, the conversion of water surface evaporation measured by pans at the Gutian station into evaporation from natural water body was explored in this paper from physical causes to the determination of formula. Water surface evaporation was also calculated by using the data of hydrometeorological factors.The determination of conversion coefficients and the laws of timespace variation as well as their effect factors were studied separately from the view... Based on both panmeasured method and experience formula method, the conversion of water surface evaporation measured by pans at the Gutian station into evaporation from natural water body was explored in this paper from physical causes to the determination of formula. Water surface evaporation was also calculated by using the data of hydrometeorological factors.The determination of conversion coefficients and the laws of timespace variation as well as their effect factors were studied separately from the view points of both conversion coefficient and statistic correlation in the panmeasured method. Dividing them into rising and falling temperature periods, the correlation formula between the evaporation of both ponds and pans was found out by mathematical function.The correlation between water surface evoporation and humidity grade, temperature grade as well as wind velocity was also explored in the experience formula method and then the correlation formula between water surface evaporation and hydrometeorological factors was developed.This paper can be used as references for studying the determination of water surface evaporation in the same climatie regions, the water surface evaporation can be calculated by means of the known data of various factors and the corresponding formulae, and the results might be satisfactory.  本文以器测法和经验公式法,从物理成因和公式的确定,探讨了古田站用蒸发器测量的水面蒸发量,换算为自然水体蒸发量,及以水文气象因子的资料,计算水面蒸发量。 在器测法中,以折算系数和统计相关两种不同方法,探讨折算系数的确定、时空变化规律、及其影响因素,分升、降温期,用数学函数建立蒸发池、器蒸发量间的关系公式。 在经验公式法中,探讨水面蒸发与湿度梯度、温度梯度和风速的关系,并建立其与水文气象因子的关系公式。 本文可供研究确定水面蒸发量参考。在同一个气候区内,以各已知要素资料,用其相应公式,计算水面蒸发量,可以得到满意的成果。  An optimization model based on a water balance equation and cases of infiltrtaion is suggested. Using rainfall data and assumed total field capacity (Wm), infiltration potenial(Ip), and specific yield (Sy), an estimated rise of water table(AHc) can be obtained. Then calculate the relative error(Re) by the measured rise of water table. The objective function of this model is the average relative error (Ar) of rainfall events. The minimum Ar and corresponding Wm0, Ip0 and Sy0 are to be optimized. Two field applications... An optimization model based on a water balance equation and cases of infiltrtaion is suggested. Using rainfall data and assumed total field capacity (Wm), infiltration potenial(Ip), and specific yield (Sy), an estimated rise of water table(AHc) can be obtained. Then calculate the relative error(Re) by the measured rise of water table. The objective function of this model is the average relative error (Ar) of rainfall events. The minimum Ar and corresponding Wm0, Ip0 and Sy0 are to be optimized. Two field applications in floodplain deposits of the Yellow River in China resulted in specific yield values of 0.067 and 0.066 with average relative errors of 10% and 8% respectively. The average relative error is sensitiveto variations in, assumed values of specific yield and infiltration potential, but insensitive to changes in the values of total field capacity.  本计算模型以水量平衡为基础,根据降雨入渗的机制,假设各种总田间持水量(Wm)、降雨入渗潜力(Ip)和含水层的给水度(Sy),计算相应的地下水位上升高度(△Hc)。用△Hc和实测的降雨补给的上升值(△H)相比,得出相对误差(Re),利用多次降雨和相应的地下水位上升资料,最后可优选出平均相对误差(Ar)的最小值(Ar_m),其对应的参数Wm_0,Ip_0和Sy_0即为所求。本计算方法要求有自记雨量计、自记水位计和水面蒸发资料。两个实际算例表明:其平均相对误差分别小于10％和8％,给水度分别为0.067和0.066。Ar对Sy和Ip的变化反应灵敏,而Wm则十分迟钝。作者还为本计算方法编写了优选和扫描的计算机程序。  Two models for estimating evaporation have been tested by making a Comparison between the measured evaporation values and the model estima tes.It is shown that these two models can be used to estimate monthly Equation(8)should be deleted when there is no prevailing inversion.For such areas,Morton's Equation to define advection energy is not applicable.  本文利用20平方米蒸发池实测蒸发量检验了两个计算水面蒸发量的模式.结果表明该二模式有较满意的精度,可用于根据气象资科计算水库或湖泊的蒸发量.检验表明,对于逆温不盛行地区,平流热传递量很弱,应该不计.对于这种地区,MORTON 的计算平流热传递的方法不适用。   << 更多相关文摘 
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