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Water and heat are the most important ecological factors in ecosystem .The author studies the situation of water and heat of the middle reaches of the Jialing River, by making use of the data Of precipitation, temperature , evaporation of water surface and surface runoff in this region. attempts to discover the distribution law of water and heat of theregion.

水分和热量是最重要的生态因子.本文利用嘉陵江中游地区降水、气温、水面蒸发和地表径流等资料分析了该地区水热状况,以揭示该地区水热分布规律.

In this paper a systematic evaluation of ground water resource during emphasis research time interval is conducted with both balance simulation method and finite element simulation method on base of a comprehensive narrative about fundamentals principle of dynamic simulation evaluation of water resource in research areas and the relation of water quantity change in water resource system. Dynamic change of precipitation infiltration, evaporation of phreatic water, reservoir percolation, canal percolation, lateral...

In this paper a systematic evaluation of ground water resource during emphasis research time interval is conducted with both balance simulation method and finite element simulation method on base of a comprehensive narrative about fundamentals principle of dynamic simulation evaluation of water resource in research areas and the relation of water quantity change in water resource system. Dynamic change of precipitation infiltration, evaporation of phreatic water, reservoir percolation, canal percolation, lateral net replenishments with precipitation, water surface evaporation, reservoir storage and stage, canal flow, ground water depth and ground water extraction.

本文在综合叙述通辽地区水资源动态模拟评价基本原则与水资源系统水量转化关系的基础上 ,应用均衡模拟法和有限单元模拟法对通辽地区重点研究时段地下水资源进行了系统评价。评价了降雨入渗量、潜水蒸发量、水库渗漏量、河渠渗漏量、侧向净补给量随降雨量、水面蒸发强度、水库蓄水量、水位、河渠流量与地下水埋深的动态变化机理及其已开发地下水资源量

The Minqin Oasis (38°05′~39°06′ N, 103°02′~104°02′ E) is located in the lower reaches of the Shiyang River, its western, northern and eastern sides are surrounded by Badanjilin Desert and Tengger Desert, the southern side of the oasis connects with Liangzhou District, and the proportion of area of the oasis occupies 15% of the total area of Minqin County. It belongs to the typical continental desert climate, which is characterized by less precipitation, high evaporation and strong winds, the ecological environment...

The Minqin Oasis (38°05′~39°06′ N, 103°02′~104°02′ E) is located in the lower reaches of the Shiyang River, its western, northern and eastern sides are surrounded by Badanjilin Desert and Tengger Desert, the southern side of the oasis connects with Liangzhou District, and the proportion of area of the oasis occupies 15% of the total area of Minqin County. It belongs to the typical continental desert climate, which is characterized by less precipitation, high evaporation and strong winds, the ecological environment is extremely vulnerable, and the Minqin Oasis is in serious shortage of water resources. The annual temperature, annual average diurnal-nocturnal temperature difference and annual accumulated temperature ≥10 ℃ in the oasis are (7.6 ℃,) 15.2 ℃ and 3 036.4 ℃ respectively, and the frost-free period is 176 days; the annual precipitation is 115.4 mm, the precipitation occurs mainly during the period from July to September, which occupies over 60% of annual precipitation; the annual evaporation is 2 664 mm, and the days of occurring strong winds ≥ force 8 are 27.8 days. In this paper, the situation of water resources in the Minqin Oasis is analyzed based on the investigated and observed data. The results are as follows: (1) In the Minqin Oasis precipitation is less and its seasonal distribution is extremely asymmetrical, its effect on the agricultural production is very limited, it, however, plays an important role in maintaining the natural desert vegetation, the important natural barrier for protecting the Minqin Oasis; (2) Surface water flowing into the Minqin Oasis is gradually reduced due to the continuous increase of water consumption in the upper reaches of the Shiyang River. In order to develop the local economy, groundwater has to be increasingly exploited, thus, a serious drawdown of groundwater level occurs, the groundwater quality is seriously deteriorated, and the local economic development and the conservation of ecological environment are seriously restricted; (3) In the Minqin Oasis 80.56% of water resources are consumed by agricultural irrigation, so it is very important to save water resources in agricultural production. Therefore, some measures are put forward for rationally utilizing and saving water resources in the Minqin Oasis so as to develop the local economy and maintain the vulnerable ecological environment.

利用实地调查资料和多年定位观测资料,分析民勤绿洲水资源状况,结果表明:民勤绿洲可用水资源日益减少,状况不容乐观,不仅制约了经济发展,而且制约了生态建设;在民勤绿洲,水资源的无效损耗量很大,主要是水面蒸发和裸地表蒸发。另外,对民勤绿洲的节水措施进行了分析。

 
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