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   水面蒸发 在 水利水电工程 分类中 的翻译结果: 查询用时:1.1秒
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水面蒸发     
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  water surface evaporation
Using the water-balance method, the authors studied the water consumption of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and the relationship between evapotranspiration and water surface evaporation measured with 20?cm pan.
      
The accumulative value of evapotranspiration is approximately equal to the accumulative value of water surface evaporation measured using 20?cm pan.
      
Evaporation may be approximated using the mean monthly pan evaporation or free water surface evaporation data.
      
It was also established that there was a corresponding increase in open water surface evaporation during this period.
      
  surface evaporation
Oscillograms of emission at Cu I transitions have two peaks, which may be associated with two phases of surface evaporation of copper: under the action of a Nd3+:YAG laser pulse and radiation of the core of an erosion plasma plume.
      
A special mode of laser action-the surface evaporation-has been experimentally studied on a large number of various materials.
      
The surface evaporation and explosive boiling of water induced by the radiation of a nonchain pulsed HF laser are studied using piezoelectric acoustic pressure transducers.
      
It has been shown that the disintegration of a metastable liquid takes place in the form of a surface evaporation wave with a cellular structure of the front and anomalously high values of the coefficient of heat transfer from the liquid.
      
A method to calculate the surface evaporation wave with a quasi-plane interphase boundary has been developed.
      
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  evaporation pan
With increasing intervals between irrigations, the resistance of the leaf surface to the diffusion of water vapour measured prior to irrigation increased, and water loss relative to that from an evaporation pan decreased.
      
According to the evaporation pan method, the seasonal crop coefficient (Kc) values for the three cultivars were 0.64 (V), 0.62 (W) and 0.54 (C).
      
Lake Chilwa, a large evaporation pan in Central Africa, is subject to seasonal and long-term fluctuations in water level.
      
Four irrigation treatments (control, 30, 60, and 90% of evaporation from Chinese Evaporation Pan) were used in the experiments.The control treatment was not irrigated through out the season, as is the local practice.
      
A reliable estimate of the evaporation rate from shallow ponds is 0.8 times the evaporation rate from a Class A evaporation pan.
      
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The paper presents the experimental results of a systematic study on the effects of various physical quantities on the mass and heat transfer at air-water interface of heated water body. Emphasis is put on the effect of water-air temperature difference. On the basis of numerous experimental data and practical experience obtained from intensive evaporation investigations of different type of water region in China, equations are recommended for the evaluation of evaporation and heat loss coefficients. The equations,...

The paper presents the experimental results of a systematic study on the effects of various physical quantities on the mass and heat transfer at air-water interface of heated water body. Emphasis is put on the effect of water-air temperature difference. On the basis of numerous experimental data and practical experience obtained from intensive evaporation investigations of different type of water region in China, equations are recommended for the evaluation of evaporation and heat loss coefficients. The equations, simple in form, not only reflect more closely the real picture of mass transfer at air-water interface, but take care of the mechanism of free and forced convection in a single expression, in harmony both in form and function.

本文是我国全国范围大规模水面蒸发及水面散热问题研究的一项成果。主要提出在气象可控专用风洞中进行的系统试验研究的结果。文中分析了气温、水面风速、水温及水气温差各个因子对水面蒸发的相关影响。特别注意了前人不曾系统研究过的水气温差对蒸发的驱送效应。 试验证明,在试验范围内,水气温差能增进水面散热的驱动能力。根据大量水槽试验资料并结合全国各地有代表性水域的现场实测经验,提出了充分考虑温差效应的水面蒸发系数公式(10)及水面综合散热系数公式(18)。公式统一了自由、强迫对流的散热机理和天然水体与受热水体的水面蒸发规律,获得了比较完整的理论上描述。可以证明,施成熙公式及国际上比较通用的Ryan-Harleman公式可认为是本文推荐公式的特例。 由于温差对水面蒸发系数的影响,还引起水面综合散热系数的增项。在一定条件下,此增项可高达20%,不容忽视。

Evaporation of water has been investigated mainly by eperimental method. In thispaper a theoretical model of two-dimensional gas-water turbulent flows with evaporation is proposed for the first time.Numerical simulation has been carried out based onthe concept of Stefan flux,the k-εturbulence model and the SIMPLE algorithm. Theeffects of wind velocity, gas-water temperature difference and relative humidity onevaporation are analyzed, and the effect of evaporation on fluid flow and heat transferis discussed....

Evaporation of water has been investigated mainly by eperimental method. In thispaper a theoretical model of two-dimensional gas-water turbulent flows with evaporation is proposed for the first time.Numerical simulation has been carried out based onthe concept of Stefan flux,the k-εturbulence model and the SIMPLE algorithm. Theeffects of wind velocity, gas-water temperature difference and relative humidity onevaporation are analyzed, and the effect of evaporation on fluid flow and heat transferis discussed. Comparison of predictions with experiments gives the qualitative agreement in a wide range of the parametric variation. However, there are still some discrepancies. whose cause needs to be studied.

水面蒸发问题的研究,过去一直是仅仅依赖于实验的手段.本文在国内首次提出了有蒸发的气-水二维湍流流动的理论模型,用Stefan流的概念,采用K-ε湍流模型及SIMPLE算法,进行了  数值模拟,分析了风速、水气温差和相对湿度等各个物理因素对蒸发的影响,并就蒸发对流体流 动和传热的影响进行了探讨.计算结果和实验结果作了比较,大部分参数变化规律在趋势上与实验吻合,亦有某些参数的变化规律与实验有出入,其原因尚待进一步研究.本研究工作在冷却水工程和水资源的开发利用中具有广泛的实际意义.

The Yellow River is a sediment loaded river.The calculation of water surface evaporation in the channel and reserviors in the past are according to the observation and measurement of clear and static water in evaporation pan over ground, and what is concerned about the calculation is if it leads to some big error. Up to now there are still little study on moving water evaporation. The experiments of clear and sedi-ment-loaded moving water evaporation had been conducted in Bayangaole Evaporation Experimental...

The Yellow River is a sediment loaded river.The calculation of water surface evaporation in the channel and reserviors in the past are according to the observation and measurement of clear and static water in evaporation pan over ground, and what is concerned about the calculation is if it leads to some big error. Up to now there are still little study on moving water evaporation. The experiments of clear and sedi-ment-loaded moving water evaporation had been conducted in Bayangaole Evaporation Experimental Station from July to October of 1995. The results show that the evaporation of clear and sediment-loaded moving water is larger than that of static water. The conclusion is of great importance to accurate calculation of evaporation in channels and reserviors, to water resource study, and so on.

黄河是一条多泥沙河流。以往在计算黄河河道和水库水面蒸发时,都是根据陆地蒸发器观测的清水静水水面蒸发来计算的,这样计算是否会产生较大的误差,一直是大家关心的问题,目前有关动水水面蒸发的研究还很少。我们于1995年7—10月在巴彦高勒蒸发实验站进行了清水、浑水动水蒸发实验。本次实验结果表明,清水、浑水动水水面蒸发均比清水静水水面蒸发量大,这一结论对准确计算河道水面蒸发和水库水面蒸发及水资源研究等方面具有重要的意义。

 
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