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水面蒸发
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  water surface evaporation
Using the water-balance method, the authors studied the water consumption of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and the relationship between evapotranspiration and water surface evaporation measured with 20?cm pan.
      
The accumulative value of evapotranspiration is approximately equal to the accumulative value of water surface evaporation measured using 20?cm pan.
      
Evaporation may be approximated using the mean monthly pan evaporation or free water surface evaporation data.
      
It was also established that there was a corresponding increase in open water surface evaporation during this period.
      
  surface evaporation
Oscillograms of emission at Cu I transitions have two peaks, which may be associated with two phases of surface evaporation of copper: under the action of a Nd3+:YAG laser pulse and radiation of the core of an erosion plasma plume.
      
A special mode of laser action-the surface evaporation-has been experimentally studied on a large number of various materials.
      
The surface evaporation and explosive boiling of water induced by the radiation of a nonchain pulsed HF laser are studied using piezoelectric acoustic pressure transducers.
      
It has been shown that the disintegration of a metastable liquid takes place in the form of a surface evaporation wave with a cellular structure of the front and anomalously high values of the coefficient of heat transfer from the liquid.
      
A method to calculate the surface evaporation wave with a quasi-plane interphase boundary has been developed.
      
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The principles and methodology of measurement of crop water requirements (ETc) by time domain reflectometry (TDR) technique were presented in this paper. The crop coefficients (Kc) of winter wheat were obtained, based on the measured ETc by TDR in the field and calculated reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) with meteorological data. The adjustment factors (a) were calculated with pan evaporation (Epan) and ETc. Finally, the validity of estimation of crop water requirements by a value were discussed.

介绍了应用时域反射仪(TDR)测定作物需水量(ETc)的原理和方法。根据冬小麦生育期内实测的ETc以及用气象资料计算的参考作物蒸散量(ETo),求得了冬小麦的作物系数(Kc)。最后还用水面蒸发量(Epan)和实测ETc计算了需水系数(α),并给出了Kc~t、α~t的关系图,探讨了用α值估算作物需水量的可能性。

Based on the theoretical analysis and numerical computation, a two dimensional root uptake model which is more suitable for practical use was obtained. At the same time, by analyzing the experimental data, relationships between bare soil evaporation, evaporation from mulch strips and atmosphere evaporation were derived. By observing the physiology index of crop in the field, the relationship between leaf area index (LAI) and water surface evaporation were also obtained. The upper boundaries in the corn field...

Based on the theoretical analysis and numerical computation, a two dimensional root uptake model which is more suitable for practical use was obtained. At the same time, by analyzing the experimental data, relationships between bare soil evaporation, evaporation from mulch strips and atmosphere evaporation were derived. By observing the physiology index of crop in the field, the relationship between leaf area index (LAI) and water surface evaporation were also obtained. The upper boundaries in the corn field can be classified into four categories: bare soil with shelter from crops, bare soil without shelter from crops, mulch with shelter from crops and mulch without shelter from crops. The corresponding mathematical model was presented. The effectiveness of the method presented was tested by soil moisture data obtained from field. The results indicate that the values of computation agree with the experimental data fairly well.

本文在开展了一系列室内外试验研究基础上,建立了有效根量密度分布函数,得到了较为切合实际的二维根系吸水率模型.同时通过田间不同条件下水面蒸发试验资料分析,得到了条带状覆盖时棵间无麦秸覆盖地和棵间麦秸覆盖地水面蒸发量(各布设20cm蒸发皿所观测的值)与大气水面蒸发量(试验场气象站位置布设的20cm蒸发皿观测值)之间的关系式.通过农田作物生理指标观测,得到了作物叶面积指数与水面蒸发量之间的关系.从而更合理地处理了条带状覆盖下上边界条件.并以此为基础,建立相应的数学模型,进行了数值模拟,实测值与计算值吻合较好,表明所建立的数学模型是可靠的,数值分析是可行的.

?In the present study, soil water flux of 20, 50 and 100 cm below the soil surface,under the conditions of different evaporation rate, groundwater table and soil texture, wascalculated by Galerkin Finite Element Method. The average time step of the relative flux wasselected as 5 d and 10 d so as to coincide with the water balance method. The simulationresults demonstrated the following: with a definite groundwater table, the relationshipbetween the soil water flux at different depth and Ks/Eo(Ks: the saturated...

?In the present study, soil water flux of 20, 50 and 100 cm below the soil surface,under the conditions of different evaporation rate, groundwater table and soil texture, wascalculated by Galerkin Finite Element Method. The average time step of the relative flux wasselected as 5 d and 10 d so as to coincide with the water balance method. The simulationresults demonstrated the following: with a definite groundwater table, the relationshipbetween the soil water flux at different depth and Ks/Eo(Ks: the saturated hydraulic conduc-tivity4 E,: the evaporation rate from the free water surface) could be described with the SoilWater Flux Changing-Range Chart, on which there were only two series lines, the first wasset for the maximum mean flux at a certain depth, the second for the minimum. Based on theChart, the recharge of groundwater to soil lm below the surface can be calculated easi1y.

采用数值方法,模拟分析了6种典型土壤的1m主体在不同蒸发强度条件下地表下20,50,100cm处土壤水分通量与地下水理深之间的关系。研究结果表明:若以5d或10d为平均时段,在一定的地下水理深条件下,土壤剖面中各深度的水分通量与土壤质地及水面蒸发强度间的关系可用土壤水分包络线图来表示。应用该包络线图,可分析计算裸地不同地下水埋深、不同蒸发条件下地下水对1m主体的补给量。在同样的水面蒸发强度下,地下水埋深起大,则谷深度的水分通量越小,当地下水理深大于3m时,地下水对1m主体已基本没有补给。

 
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