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The methods for obtaining microbiological transformation products of household, agricultural, and industrial waste and their characteristics are analyzed.
      
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All kinds of systems of Responsibility in agriculture production are now being excuted in many rural areas of our country.practice has proved that in those areas where any system of responsibility in agricultural production is carried out well better results in increasing output have already been achieved.In regard to the system of "the fixing of farm output quotas for each household and the fixing of responsibility for a task until it is completed for each household",however,some people still have some aoubts...

All kinds of systems of Responsibility in agriculture production are now being excuted in many rural areas of our country.practice has proved that in those areas where any system of responsibility in agricultural production is carried out well better results in increasing output have already been achieved.In regard to the system of "the fixing of farm output quotas for each household and the fixing of responsibility for a task until it is completed for each household",however,some people still have some aoubts and are afraid of its direction being in the wrong.They are lacking in correct recognization of some problems arising in process of excuting the system of responsibility.This article will approach and analyse these problems in the light of Marxism,clarify the cause of increaseing output by executing the system of responsibility,prove that tke system of responsibility will not change the socialist direction of our countryside and wil 1 not interfere with the development of machanization of agriculture,and affirm that this syste.m of responsibility is an effective form tallying with the productive forces of our countrside.

当前,我国农村许多地区正在实行各种形式的农业生产责任制。实践证明,凡是生产责任制贯彻得好的地区都有较好的增产效果。但对包产到和包干到生产责任制,有些人思想上还有疑虑,怕方向不对头。对实行过程中出现的一些问题,缺乏正确的认识。本文针对这些问题,以马克思主义原理进行分析和探讨,阐明了实行这种责任制的增产原因,论证这种责任制不会改变我国农村的社会主义方向,不会影响农业机械化的发展,是符合我国农村生产力状况的。

The southern part of Jiangsu Province is one of the relatively developed regions in our country.In recent two years,a new form of rural responsibilitysystem,with production quotas fixed to the households or labourers,has beenwidely established in many communes and production brigades in this area.Thissystem has brought tangible,positive results to the peasants.Facts have toldus that the setting up of the responsibility system is a good way to make therural area rich and prosperous.Compared with the job responsibility...

The southern part of Jiangsu Province is one of the relatively developed regions in our country.In recent two years,a new form of rural responsibilitysystem,with production quotas fixed to the households or labourers,has beenwidely established in many communes and production brigades in this area.Thissystem has brought tangible,positive results to the peasants.Facts have toldus that the setting up of the responsibility system is a good way to make therural area rich and prosperous.Compared with the job responsibility system,the responsibility system,withproduction quotas fixed to the households or labourers,has the following strongpoints:First,it integrates more closely the benefits of the peasants with theresults of production;Secondly,it suits the characteristics of agricultural production better;Thirdly,it raises labour efficiency,liberates a lot of labour forces andpromotes the diversification of rural economy.In a word,it brings the peasants' enthusiasm of production into full play.However,a large amount of surplus labour force appeared in the country-side after the institution of the responsibility systme.How to fully utilize itis a pressing problem we are now faced with. According to the experience ofthe southern part of liangsu Province,the following prove to be effective mea-sures:——develop a diversified economy;——develop rural industry;——develop various service trades.

江苏省苏南地区大部份属于经济相对比较发达的地区。近两年来苏南地区很多社队实行了专业承包、联产到劳的生产责任制,取得了良好的效果.事实证明.联产到劳、到责任制不仅是治“穷”之道,也是致“富”的良法。为什么在经济发达地区实行联产到劳、到责任制形式能够取得良好的经济效果,受到广大农民群众的欢迎。首先, 由于这种责任制形式能够使劳动者的经济利益和生产成果更为密切的结合起来;其次,它更能够适合农业生产的特点;第三,它进一步促进了劳动资源的大解放,提高了劳动力的利用率。总之,实行联产到劳责任制最大的好处,就是能够更好地发挥农民的生产积极性和创造性,使每个劳动者真正成为物质财富的创造者。苏南地区实行联产到劳以后,出现最突出的或者是带有根本性的问题是劳动力的出路问题.对农业劳力的“离农”倾向不能单纯地靠“限”,而应当“引”,引导农民广开生产门路,提高农业生产专业化、社会化程度,提高农业劳动生产率.解决农村剩余劳力出路何在呢?从苏南地区的实践来看,主要有三个方面:其一是发展多种经营;其二是发展农村工业;其三是发展农村各项公用事业和服务事业.

Why fixing of quota handed in for each peasant household as the type of production responsibility system developed so rapidly and whether it is only the provisional measure are two problems discussed in this article. Fixing of quota system is accepted by peasants chiefly due to the fact that it conforms to the requirements of rural production forces, so makes progress in productive forces. Both labor, power and material resources, the two factors of production forces, are combined better in quality and, quantity,...

Why fixing of quota handed in for each peasant household as the type of production responsibility system developed so rapidly and whether it is only the provisional measure are two problems discussed in this article. Fixing of quota system is accepted by peasants chiefly due to the fact that it conforms to the requirements of rural production forces, so makes progress in productive forces. Both labor, power and material resources, the two factors of production forces, are combined better in quality and, quantity, and each promotes the other, to make the relation of production corresponding to the production forces. The principle of material interest among the state, collectives and individuals are comprehensively implemented. Peasants become the real master of socialist production as they have the right to make decision themselves. Agricultural production responsibility system is the strategic measure for socialist countries to manage agricultural economy, it will remain for long time, though the forms of the system would be improved in accordance with development of production. Fixing of quota system is suitable for different level of production forces, therefore it might adapt itself in different area and period.

本文对“包干到”所以能成为联产计酬责任制的典型形式,得到迅速发展的原因和是否是采取的暂时措施两个问题做了初步探讨。“包干到”所以会被广大群众采用,归根到底是适应农村生产力状况促进了生产力发展。它推动了生产力本身的矛盾运动,使生产力当中人和物两个因素从质和量的结合上都能彼此制约、彼此促进,推动着生产力向前发展;它推动了生产关系和生产力的矛盾运动,把国家、集体和个人利益有机的结合起来,较正确地贯彻了社会主义物质利益原则,并使农民有了生产自主权、成了社会主义生产的主人,因而促进了生产力发展。农业生产责任制是社会主义国家搞好农业经济管理的一项重要措施,长期不变,责任制形式则会随生产发展逐步完善。“包干到”这种形式,由于它符合社会主义计划经济的要求,是社会主义国家有计划管理农业经济的较好形式;它本身的容量较大,能适应生产力差距较大的各地区生产和较长时期内我国农村生产力的发展;它也符合我国民族的传统习惯,因此它不是临时性的措施。

 
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