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冷冻断裂技术
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  breaking technology
     The Application of Freeze Breaking Technology on Photographic Sensitive Materials
     冷冻断裂技术在感光材料上的应用
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     The principle and process of freeze breaking technology,the application example in 3 specimens of photographic sensitive materials and the examine result are introduced. It shows that the technology is a convenience and objective method in examining the construction of photographic sensitive materials.
     介绍了冷冻断裂技术的原理、操作过程、 3个样品的应用实例和检测结果,表明该技术在检测感光材料的涂层结构中是一种既方便又直观的方法。
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     ObjectiveTo study the changes of the intramembrane protein particles of erythrocyte from Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients and the gene carriers and to explore the pathogenesis of DMD and the diagnostic value of erythrocyte freeze-fracture technology.
     目的 研究 Duchenne型肌营养不良症 (Duchenne muscular dystrophy,DMD)患者及其基因携带者红细胞膜蛋白颗粒的变化情况 ,探讨 DMD的发病机理以及红细胞冷冻断裂技术的诊断价值。
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     STUDIES OF THE ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES OF HUMAN NASO-PHARYNGEAL CANCER CELLS INVADED INTO ORGAN IN ORGAN CULTURE BY FREEZE CRACKING TECHNIQUE AND SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY
     用冷冻断裂技术和扫描电镜观察人类鼻咽癌细胞株侵袭到器官内的微细结构变化
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     Observation on silica-induced cell membrane injury and its inhibition by aluminium citrate in rat erythrocytes with the freeze-fracture technique
     用冷冻断裂技术观察二氧化硅粉尘对细胞膜损伤与柠檬酸铝的抗损伤效应
短句来源
     The present experiment applied the freeze cracking technique and scanning electron microscopy for further studies of ultrastructural changes of cancer cells after they invaded into the organ.
     本实验利用冷冻断裂技术和扫描电镜观察了瘤细胞侵入器官后的微细结构的变化。
短句来源
     In this study the effects of silica on intramembranous structure of erythrocytes and alveolar macrophages were observed with the freeze-fracture technique.
     本文应用冷冻断裂技术观察了SiO_2,对红细胞和肺泡巨噬细胞膜内结构的影响。
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     TECHNOLOGY
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     The Application of Freeze Breaking Technology on Photographic Sensitive Materials
     冷冻断裂技术在感光材料上的应用
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The present experiment applied the freeze cracking technique and scanning electron microscopy for further studies of ultrastructural changes of cancer cells after they invaded into the organ. It was found that, after two days of cultivation, there were a lot of cancer ceils which adhered on to the surface of organ fragments. The cancer cells migrated on the surface of the organ and at the same time penetrated into the organ by stretching out their pseudopodia. After 3 days of cultivation, some cancer cells had...

The present experiment applied the freeze cracking technique and scanning electron microscopy for further studies of ultrastructural changes of cancer cells after they invaded into the organ. It was found that, after two days of cultivation, there were a lot of cancer ceils which adhered on to the surface of organ fragments. The cancer cells migrated on the surface of the organ and at the same time penetrated into the organ by stretching out their pseudopodia. After 3 days of cultivation, some cancer cells had already invaded into the organ. After invasion they connected target cells of the organ by different ways, but their filopodium is the important organelle for the connection and communication with those target cells.The cancer cells caught the projecting portion of surface of target cells by branches of filopodia forming a mosaic pattern with them. Sometimes the filopodia of cancer cells fused with the opposed surface of target cells by inserting into it. Some filopodia became short and thick inside the organ due probably to the limited distance between cancer cells and target cells when they were in close contact to each other. Once the tumor cell nests were formed in the organ, the tumor cells connected each other by stretching out pseudopodia from both poles, but kept a definite space between cells. It is postulated that these inter-cellular spaces were formed probably by the repelling force of the identical electric charge of the tumor cell membranes.

本实验利用冷冻断裂技术和扫描电镜观察了瘤细胞侵入器官后的微细结构的变化。实验结果发现培养1至2天后很多瘤细胞附在器官表面,瘤细胞沿器官表面爬行,同时伸出丝状伪足向器官内侵入。培养3天后有些瘤细胞已侵入器官内,当瘤细胞侵入器官后以各种方式与靶细胞相接触,但仍以丝状伪足作为联络的主要微器官,它利用分支的末端变粗部分抓住靶细胞表面,呈镶嵌状态或者与对方细胞沟通融合,象直接插入似的。有些丝状伪足比在器官外时短而粗,可能因细胞之间接触的距离变短之故。一旦瘤细胞在器官内积聚成团,便形成巢状结构,它们之间多从细胞两极伸出丝状伪足相互连接,而在细胞边侧之间多数留有一定的空隙,这种空隙是否由于瘤细胞带过多的电荷相互排斥的结果,尚没有足够证据肯定或否定这个问题。本实验完成了在光学显微镜下瘤细胞浸润过程中第4、5阶段的扫描电镜观察。

For the first time, using SEM with cryofracture technique, the development of GC in human cerebellar hemisphere cortex was shown and discussed in this paper. In fetus arouud the 20th wk, in the deep external granular layer (EGL), it was found that some cells emitted the "Y-shape" thin projections and thick ones like short stick. These cells were supposedto be baby GC. The gathering of them in the layer means that the GC migrating process has begun. By the 32nd wk, the fracture surfaces of the cerebel lar cortex...

For the first time, using SEM with cryofracture technique, the development of GC in human cerebellar hemisphere cortex was shown and discussed in this paper. In fetus arouud the 20th wk, in the deep external granular layer (EGL), it was found that some cells emitted the "Y-shape" thin projections and thick ones like short stick. These cells were supposedto be baby GC. The gathering of them in the layer means that the GC migrating process has begun. By the 32nd wk, the fracture surfaces of the cerebel lar cortex was observed in striple pattern under SEM. At the same time, it was also found that the EGL on some fracture surfaces tended to disap pear. It was supposed by the above mentioned results that the GC migra ring process now come to an end. The GC migrated along the channel composed by the Bergmann fibers and their configuration was mainly limited by the inner channel space. From the 20th wk to 40th wk, the size of the GC scarcely changed. In the 20th wk, the surface of GC appeared as one of the cerebral cortex, having sulci and gyri. but different from that, their surface in fetal 27th wk appeared rather smooth and was completely spread by polygonal figures drawn by small bank-like foldings. The GC produced their axon projections (AP)when they were in the EGL, and after they had entered the internal granular layer (IGL), their AP grew from the IGL to the molecular, layer (ML). There were a number of small spines on The two branches of the GC AP when "T-shape", part of AP was close to its Cell body in the IGL. The primary dendritic projections of the GC showed various forms: ciliated, mushroom like, and branching, etc. They could dissociate or connect with the swelling end off the mossy fibers. Some developing machanisms of the GC body, projections, and their synaptic connections were discussed in the present paper.

本文用扫描电镜结合冷冻断裂技术探讨了人小脑半球皮质颗粒细胞的发育。胎龄20周时,在小脑皮质外颗粒层深部的一些细胞上可发现呈“Y”形分枝的细小突起和较粗大的短柱状突起。推测这些细胞是幼稚的颗粒细胞,它们在该层的集结标志着颗粒细胞迁移过程开始。至胎龄32周左右,小脑皮质断面在扫描电镜下呈分层结构,与此同时,发现某些断面上外颗粒层趋近消失。据此推测,此时颗粒细胞的迁移过程接近终止。颗粒细胞沿Bergmann纤维构成的隧道迁移,其形态主要受隧道制约。从胎龄20周至出生时,颗粒细胞大小改变不明显。20周时,颗粒细胞表面呈脑回样结构,而到27周其面较光滑,但形成由堤状隆起构成的多边形图案。颗粒细胞在外颗粒层时产生轴突,当它们迁移至颗粒层后,其轴突向分子层生长。颗粒细胞“T”形轴突部在紧邻其胞体时,二分枝上即已分布着许多小棘。颗粒细胞原始树突形态多样,有纤毛样、覃状、分枝状等,它们或游离或与苔藓纤维末梢膨体形成突触连接。本文并对颗粒细胞体、突起及其突触连接的某些发育机制进行了初步探讨。

Myocardial tissues obtained from human fetuses aged from 20 to 39 weeks were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), through cryofracture and standard SEM Preparations. The 3-dimensional view of the myocardial ultrastructure shows that the myocardial cells of fetus are smaller than those of the adult. Myofilaments gradually increase. Most of mitochondria are round, oval and contain well-developed cristae. At 32~39 weeks, it is obvious that many mitochondria cluster near the pole of the nucleus. Occasionally...

Myocardial tissues obtained from human fetuses aged from 20 to 39 weeks were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), through cryofracture and standard SEM Preparations. The 3-dimensional view of the myocardial ultrastructure shows that the myocardial cells of fetus are smaller than those of the adult. Myofilaments gradually increase. Most of mitochondria are round, oval and contain well-developed cristae. At 32~39 weeks, it is obvious that many mitochondria cluster near the pole of the nucleus. Occasionally gaint mitochondria are present. At 24 weeks, transverse tubules extend throughout their course around the myofilaments and attach to nuclear envelope. Sarcoplasmic reticulum are well-developed and widely connect with mitochondria and nuclear envelope. According to the results the myocardial cell development of human fetus is briefly discussed.

应用冷冻断裂技术结合扫描电镜的方法来观察5~10个月人胎心肌细胞的三维立体构象表明:胎儿心肌细胞较成人小。肌丝随月份逐渐增多。线粒体多为圆形、卵圆形,嵴发育好;后继月份有核周区聚集现象;偶见巨大线粒体。横管于6个月后遍及肌丝区,见有核膜攀附现象。肌质网发达,与线粒休、核膜广泛联系。根据以上结果对人胎心肌的发育进行了讨论。

 
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