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数值
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  numerically
    The four different louver angles(15°, 20°,24°,28°) are numerically studied. it is obtained that the heat transfer performance is the best for the louver angle at 24°, and the pressure drop increases with the increase of the louver angle.
    对4种百叶窗倾角(15°,20°,24°,28°)进行了数值模拟,比较发现24°倾角的百叶窗翅片的传热性能最好,压降随着倾角的增大而增大。
    Three Dimensional Numerically Simulation Analysis on Diesel Engine Combustion Chamber
    柴油机燃烧室流场三维数值模拟分析
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    With the rapid development of computational fluid dynamics and combustion theory, applying the computer to numerically simulate the complicated processes in the plasma ignition is possible.
    随着计算流体力学和燃烧理论的发展及计算机的广泛应用,用数值模拟等离子点火器内部燃烧系统流动、传热、传质、化学反应等复杂的过程已成为可能。
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    The solid liquid two phase flow in hydraulic machinery runner is studied theoretically and simulated numerically in this paper.
    本文利用悬浮体固液两相流颗粒群模型的理论研究成果,对在含沙水流中工作的水力机械转轮内部的固液两相流进行了数值模拟研究。
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    The coal combustion behavior in the tangential-firing boiler furnace is numerically studied.
    本文对煤粉在四角切向燃烧煤粉锅炉炉膛内的燃烧行为进行了数值研究。
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    FEMA 3D A Software Package for the Solution of 3D Electromagnetic Field Problems
    电磁铁数值计算三维软件包FEMA 3D
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    Study on Air Bubble Motion in Water Turbomachinery Part 2 the Calculation Method and Result
    水涡轮机械中的空泡运动研究 第2部分 空泡运动的数值计算方法及结果
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    A COMPARISON ANALYSIS OF THE TESTED AND PREDICTED DATE OF THE TEMPERATURE FIELD IN THE FURNACE OF THE SG—420t/h BOILER
    SG-420t/h锅炉燃烧室温度场测试与数值预报的对比分析
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    A FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR SIMULATING THREE-DIMENSION INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW
    三维不可压流动有限元数值模拟
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    MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION ON ELECTRIC AND TEMPERATURE FIELDS IN BATHS OF A ROUND ELECTRIC CLEANING FURNACE
    圆形贫化电炉熔池内电场和温度场的数值计算
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  numerically
It is well known that Gabor expansions generated by a lattice of Nyquist density are numerically unstable, in the sense that they do not constitute frame decompositions.
      
Spherical harmonic series have many of the same wonderful properties as Fourier series, but have lacked one important thing: a numerically stable fast transform analogous to the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT).
      
Finally, we consider the spline of order 2; we investigate numerically the region of the time-frequency plane where it generates a frame and we compute the dual function for some values of the parameters.
      
This makes them numerically attractive for applications in geophysical modeling.
      
It is simple in structure, implementable, numerically efficient and has global convergence.
      
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Ⅰ. The Coal Classification Method for the Chinese Coals. (а) The Ultimate Analysis Graphical Coal Classification Method-Use the volatile Mateer on Combustible basis Vr as abscissa and the simplified coal characteristic coefficient as ordinate. (б) Proximate Analysis Graphical Coal Classification Method-Use the volatile matter on combustible basis VT as abscissa and the fixed carbon on ash free basis F. C.w Ⅱ. The Ranks (kinds) of the Chinese Coals-By using the two above mentioned graphi- ed coal classification...

Ⅰ. The Coal Classification Method for the Chinese Coals. (а) The Ultimate Analysis Graphical Coal Classification Method-Use the volatile Mateer on Combustible basis Vr as abscissa and the simplified coal characteristic coefficient as ordinate. (б) Proximate Analysis Graphical Coal Classification Method-Use the volatile matter on combustible basis VT as abscissa and the fixed carbon on ash free basis F. C.w Ⅱ. The Ranks (kinds) of the Chinese Coals-By using the two above mentioned graphi- ed coal classification methods, the Chinese coals available with ultimate analysis or proximate analysis data can be easily classified into the following different kinds as known internationally: -anthracite (A), semi-athracite (T), semi-bituminous ( C), coking coal (k), steaming fat coal ( ), gas coal ( ), long flame (candle) coal ( ) and lignite coal ( ), as tabulated on Table - 4. Ⅲ. The Properties of Chinese Coals. (а) The composition of the Chinese Coals - with the exception of ash and sulfur which vary irregularly, the other constituents. like carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and analytical moisture vary regularly with the variation of the vodatile matter on combustible basis V in the different stage of carbonization. (б) The Reltation between the ultimate analysis and proximate analysis for the Chinese Coals- In the bituminous coal region, the data of proximate analysis can be transferred to the ultimate analysis proximately according to the straight line formula, as for the bituinous coal. The other constituents like H, O and N, S can also be obtained by the straight line formulas as shown on the graph. (в) The Heating Value of Chinese Coals - The Heating Value of Chinese Coals; when only ultimate analysis data is available, can be checked by using the Mendeleef formula; when Duly the proximate analysis data is available, the heahng value can be checked by the Goutal Formula. When illers is only the ultimate data without any bomb calorimeter, the heating value can be obtained by the following empirical formulas:(p) The Coking Property of the Chinese Coals---The ebbing property can be represent6d by' foe coking coeffident as suggested by the author, the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen on combustible. basis (%). With the exception of anthraede, semi--anthracite and liana, ' which will have the ash in powderform, when burned, the other bituminous coals like (1) Semi--bituminous and part of the coking coal, when Vr- 16 ~ 24 7o and (%) = 0.90 1 .8, the ash after combustion will become softly caked; (2) for coking coal, Steaming fat Hr coal and gas coal, when Vr~25-47 and M~0. 58-1 .2, the ash after combustion will become strongly caked; (3) FOr gas coal and long flame coal, when Vr~31 ~46 ac and aam: =0. 34-0. 50, the ash will become softly caked. f {if) The Combustion Characteristics of Chinese Coals -- The combustion characteristics vary with the kind of coal. Which kind of coal is suitable for what kind of industrial use and which type of furnace is suitable for burning what kind' of 'coal,. all depends uPOn the rank, composition and combustion charact6rislics of the coal. F6, economy, it is necessary >to burn the poor quality coal nearby and the problem of caking inside the furnace resulting from poor quality coal muSt be properly solved. ' (in) The ash Fusion point of Chinese Coals -- The ash composition affects the fusion point. greatly. The change in ash composition will of feet the fusion poillt. Thus increasing the met,ilie oxides in the coal ash liko FeZO3, CaO and MAO ate. will raduce the fusion point and will fadlitate the ash disposal in fluid form. On the other hand, whother increasing 'the kaolin (fire clay) in the ash composition will raise the ash fusion point or not is a problem worthy for further investigation and research. ' '. It may be reaseonably assumed as suggested by the auther that the coal ash is mainly consisted of kaolin (Al.O, ZFios ZHZO) + free SiOZ + different motailic odddes (FavOr, CaO and MgO, etc ). When coal is burned, the free SiOZ will combine with some of the metallic

(Ⅰ)中国煤的分类法 (а)元素分析图解分类法─—横坐标采用纯燃质挥发物百分数V而纵坐标则用简化特性系数 (б)实用分析图解分类法─—横坐标采用纯燃质挥发物百分数V而纵坐标则采用去灰定炭百分数F.C。 (Ⅱ)中国煤的分类类别 根据上列二个新的图解分类方法,中国煤在有元素分析或实用分析数据后,即可从图解上求得分类类别,中国煤按照国际间一般分类标准,可以分为无烟煤,瘠煤、蒸汽结焦煤,炼焦煤,蒸汽肥煤,瓦斯煤,长火焰烟煤,褐煤等,已列在中国煤突用分析数据表的最后一项。 (Ⅲ)中国煤的特性 (а)中国煤的成分─—中国煤的成分,除灰分与硫磺的变化无规律外,其他成分如碳素,氢素,氧素,氮素,分析水分等的变化极有规律,此外煤的工作质水分则受外界气候影响而变化,但吸收水分(即分析水分)划与煤的含氧量有失,而变化很有规律。 (б)中国煤的元素分析与实用分析的关系─—中国煤的实用分析数据,在烟煤区域,可以按照直线关系公式,转变力元素分析的近似数据。例如其他成分如H,O及N S等亦可从直线公式(如图上所示)求得平均数值。 (в)中国煤的发热量──中国煤的发热量,若有元素分析数据,则应用门捷列夫公式来计算核对;若仅有实用...

(Ⅰ)中国煤的分类法 (а)元素分析图解分类法─—横坐标采用纯燃质挥发物百分数V而纵坐标则用简化特性系数 (б)实用分析图解分类法─—横坐标采用纯燃质挥发物百分数V而纵坐标则采用去灰定炭百分数F.C。 (Ⅱ)中国煤的分类类别 根据上列二个新的图解分类方法,中国煤在有元素分析或实用分析数据后,即可从图解上求得分类类别,中国煤按照国际间一般分类标准,可以分为无烟煤,瘠煤、蒸汽结焦煤,炼焦煤,蒸汽肥煤,瓦斯煤,长火焰烟煤,褐煤等,已列在中国煤突用分析数据表的最后一项。 (Ⅲ)中国煤的特性 (а)中国煤的成分─—中国煤的成分,除灰分与硫磺的变化无规律外,其他成分如碳素,氢素,氧素,氮素,分析水分等的变化极有规律,此外煤的工作质水分则受外界气候影响而变化,但吸收水分(即分析水分)划与煤的含氧量有失,而变化很有规律。 (б)中国煤的元素分析与实用分析的关系─—中国煤的实用分析数据,在烟煤区域,可以按照直线关系公式,转变力元素分析的近似数据。例如其他成分如H,O及N S等亦可从直线公式(如图上所示)求得平均数值。 (в)中国煤的发热量──中国煤的发热量,若有元素分析数据,则应用门捷列夫公式来计算核对;若仅有实用分析数据,则可用古?

(?)

在温度为290~370℃,压力直到250大气压附近,实验确定了氨的比容,得到了六条等容线。用实验数据估计了氨开始分解的分界线。作者对Я.З.卡什夫辛斯基(Казавчинскний)拟订的确定状态方程的方法作了简化。根据这个简化的方法并利用М.Л.符卡诺维奇(Вукалович)的数据建立了新的状态方程式。把从方程式求得的数值与作者的实验数据相比较。比较表明,在290~370℃的区域内二者的平均分歧不超过0.52%。用这个方程式计算了在300~370℃、80~250大气压范围内的新表格。

This paper introduces the theoretical basis of the numerical method of the thermodynamic calculations of the diesel engine, the fundamental differential equations for thermodynamic calculations derived from the above theoretical basis, and the conception of instantaneous air-fuel ratio and coefficient of pure residual exhaust gas. In the paper it is proved that the differential equations of instantaneous air-fuel ratio during the induction stroke can be integrated for perfect mixing, consequently, the number...

This paper introduces the theoretical basis of the numerical method of the thermodynamic calculations of the diesel engine, the fundamental differential equations for thermodynamic calculations derived from the above theoretical basis, and the conception of instantaneous air-fuel ratio and coefficient of pure residual exhaust gas. In the paper it is proved that the differential equations of instantaneous air-fuel ratio during the induction stroke can be integrated for perfect mixing, consequently, the number of differential equations necessary for thermodynamic calculations can be decreased.

本文论述柴油机热力计算数值方法的理论基础,导出了热力计算的基本微分方程;引进了瞬时过量空气系数和纯残余废气系数的概念,并证明在均匀混合的前提下,进气期间的瞬时过量空气系数的微分方程是可以积分的,从而减少热力计算所需微分方程的个数。此外,采用G.Woschni等人关于当量燃烧曲线的概念,指出可以由单缸试验所测得的功率,比油耗和最高燃烧压力的数值,运用求解非线性代数方程组的一般方法来优选当量燃烧曲线,使热力计算更接近于实际情况。

 
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