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文化
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    Ornament and Sociocultural Environment
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    The Theory of Architectural Function and Architectural Evaluation
    论建筑功能与建筑评价─—兼谈建筑文化的时代性和地方性
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    A Brief Talk and Some Reflections on the Historical Development of South Korean Architectu ral Calture
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The scale of building groups,the places of attraction and the planning of the buildings,all have a certain relationship with the pedestrian flows.A discussion of these relationships would be useful to the planning of these building groups. In the town centres,the direction of the movement of people always influences the placing of buildings and their development. Surveying at road crossings,one can find where the pedestrians always ga- thered,thus the commercial buildings were always sprug from these places...

The scale of building groups,the places of attraction and the planning of the buildings,all have a certain relationship with the pedestrian flows.A discussion of these relationships would be useful to the planning of these building groups. In the town centres,the direction of the movement of people always influences the placing of buildings and their development. Surveying at road crossings,one can find where the pedestrians always ga- thered,thus the commercial buildings were always sprug from these places also.If we will take a fine places of the commercial buildings,we can use these crossings, esp.the‘T’ crossing. After analysis our investigation,we can find the unbalance of pedestrain flows in the streets or in the squares.The phenomenon of balance and unbalance pede- strain flows can influence the planning of building groups.These all caused by many factors. According to the same investiagation,the second part of the same article proves that there exists many spectators waiting and scattering in front of theatres and they,have a certain intensrty and impact.The authors have also analysed the layout of theatres and discussed the characters of flows respeetively.Finally some suggestions are made about the ways and means to set back the theatres and com bine them with shops.

本文研究了人流活动与商业文化建筑群布局的关系。建筑群空间尺度、吸引人流点的相互位置及空间中的引导、分隔物的布局与人流活动均有一定关系,研究以上诸关系有利于进行建筑群布局。城市人流汇集的方向影响着市中心建筑群的位置和发展方向。人流往往汇集于道路交义口,调查证明旧商业建筑群往有由交叉口开始发展的现象。利用步行交叉口,特别是丁字交叉口布置商业建筑群是良好的处理方法之一。调查资料证明城市现状的商业、文化建筑群中往往呈现人流活动不均衡的现象,它由于多种因素而造成,人流活动均衡与不均衡的现象影响着建筑群的布局。本文中用调查资料证明影剧院等场和疏散人流具有一定的冲击力和强度,文中列举了现状的三种影剧院布置的形式,阐述其中人流活动的特点,提出影剧院后退红线布置或与次要吸引点结合布置等均是合适的布置方法。

The Cultural Hall at Shanghai is a huge multipurpose auditorium having a seating capacity of 12,500 and a volume of 122,000 m~3.The plan is fan-shaped with an area of 7,800m~2.Various theatrical,musical and other performances as well as political gatherings may be held here.An absorbent“floating cloud”ceiling is used for the acoustical treatment.Hence,the reverberation time of this auditorium is controlled in the order of 2.0 sec.for the mid-frequencies(500—1000Hz)with full occupancy.Thus an optimum characteristic...

The Cultural Hall at Shanghai is a huge multipurpose auditorium having a seating capacity of 12,500 and a volume of 122,000 m~3.The plan is fan-shaped with an area of 7,800m~2.Various theatrical,musical and other performances as well as political gatherings may be held here.An absorbent“floating cloud”ceiling is used for the acoustical treatment.Hence,the reverberation time of this auditorium is controlled in the order of 2.0 sec.for the mid-frequencies(500—1000Hz)with full occupancy.Thus an optimum characteristic for performance is obtained.Sound columns are used for the semi-central loudspeaker system.Thus a high articulation quality of speech can be ensured,and the sound distribution appears to be quite even all over the audience area.

文化广场是一座可容12500人的特大型观众厅。平面呈扇形,面积7800米~2,总体积达122,000米~3。这里经常举行文艺演出,也供集会之用。大厅的吸声处理采用了大片“浮云”式吸声平顶,使混响时间控制在2秒左右(500—1000赫),达到了满意的演出效果。大厅的扩声系统采用了半集中式布置的声柱,保证了良好的语言清晰度,并使全场声音分布均匀。

The year 1963 was the 1.200th anniversary of Buddhist Master Jian Zhen's death. In order to commemorate this great envoy of cultural exchange between the Chinese and the Japanese people, it was decided to erect a memorial hall for the Master in his native place - Yangzhou, Jiangsu province. The late professor Liang Sicheng of Qinghua University was appointed chief architect for the design work, and the construction was completed in 1973.The memorial hall stands on a hill in the northern suburbs of the city,...

The year 1963 was the 1.200th anniversary of Buddhist Master Jian Zhen's death. In order to commemorate this great envoy of cultural exchange between the Chinese and the Japanese people, it was decided to erect a memorial hall for the Master in his native place - Yangzhou, Jiangsu province. The late professor Liang Sicheng of Qinghua University was appointed chief architect for the design work, and the construction was completed in 1973.The memorial hall stands on a hill in the northern suburbs of the city, and to the southwest of the site is the ancient Daming Temple, where Jian Zhen served as abbot before he went to Japan. This building is a wooden structure of five bays long and three bays deep, designed in traditional architectural style. On the main elevation the wall plane is set back on the second line of columns, thus creating a colonnade. Flanking the hall are covered corridors which link it with the stela pavilion on the south to form a courtyard. The design of the hall, including its frontage treatment, bracket system and roof line reminds one of the Golden Hall of Toshodaiji in Nara, Japan, a fine surviving example of Buddhist architecture in the Tang dynasty style.

鉴真大师是我国盛唐时期的高僧,除佛学外,在文学,医药、雕塑、绘画、建筑等方面,都有很深的造诣。他于公元753年东渡日本,为中日两国人民的友好往来与文化交流,做出了杰出的贡献。1972年中日建交以来,两国人民的友谊日益发展。现在,被日本视为“国宝”的鉴真像,正在我国巡回展览,这是中日文化交流史上的又一盛举。为此,本刊特发表梁思成教授的遗著《扬州鉴真大和尚纪念堂设计方案》一文和建成后的一组照片,表示欢迎和庆贺。 鉴真纪念堂是1963年为纪念鉴真逝世1200周年而决定建立的,由梁思成教授及其助手完成方案设计,当年建成了纪念碑。其后,由南京工学院张致中和扬州建设局的同志们进行技术设计和绘制施工图,并纽织了施工,于1973年全部落成。 梁思成教授是我国著名的建筑学家和建筑教育家,曾任清华大学建筑系主任、中国建筑学会副理事长。他长期遭受林彪、“四人帮”的摧残、迫害,不幸于1971年病逝。鉴真纪念堂是梁思成教授生前主持的最后一项方案设计,我们发表他这篇遗著,也是对梁思成教授的纪念。

 
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