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英国
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A newly developed synthesis of X-ray data for crystal analysis, called the point diagram synthesis, is compared with the classical Fouriers. The fundamental assumption in the method s first explained. A correlation matrix of index 10 is then quoted. Some mathematical properties of the correlation matrices, that is, the absolute convergence, and the h and μ-summation rules are described and illustrated. The method is next applied in parallel with the Fouriers to an arbitrary structure along with its two component...

A newly developed synthesis of X-ray data for crystal analysis, called the point diagram synthesis, is compared with the classical Fouriers. The fundamental assumption in the method s first explained. A correlation matrix of index 10 is then quoted. Some mathematical properties of the correlation matrices, that is, the absolute convergence, and the h and μ-summation rules are described and illustrated. The method is next applied in parallel with the Fouriers to an arbitrary structure along with its two component structures. The crystal NaCl is next studied, using the actual experimental data. It is shown that on the basis of exactly the same experimental data the inormation given by the two types of syntheses are entirely different. Conclusions about the method drawn in the previous articles are then discussed in the light of the new studies and approved once more.

作者曾在英国自然界发表渠所建立之棋式X光综合新法之大意。一时引起欧美同行兴趣及讨论。其中有表兴趣者,有对此新法是否比通用之符礼式综合法更为有用致疑。本文即将新旧二法应用於自然及理想晶体。比较其结果之优劣。此外并对新法之三种数学特性加以介绍。

Acetylcholine(I;X=OH,n=1)is a substance possessing intense physiological activity toward the vegetative nerves.It would be interesting to see the variation of physiological activity in the homologous series of choline esters(I). C_nH_(2n+1)·CO·OCH_2·CH_2·N~+(CH_3)_3X~- (I) The literature methods for the preparation of choline esters either by the interaction of β-halogen-substituted ethyl esters with trimethylamine or by the acylation of choline salts are not satisfactory in the purification of the products....

Acetylcholine(I;X=OH,n=1)is a substance possessing intense physiological activity toward the vegetative nerves.It would be interesting to see the variation of physiological activity in the homologous series of choline esters(I). C_nH_(2n+1)·CO·OCH_2·CH_2·N~+(CH_3)_3X~- (I) The literature methods for the preparation of choline esters either by the interaction of β-halogen-substituted ethyl esters with trimethylamine or by the acylation of choline salts are not satisfactory in the purification of the products. Loury prepared a few choline ester salts by the acylation of 2-dimethylaminoetha- nol and the subsequent quaternization of the tertiary amines so obtained,but he did not give the details including the physical constants and the analyses of the products.In the present work this method has been extended,a series of fatty acid esters of choline iodide has been synthesized.The products are well-defined crystalline solids.The lower members of the series are soluble in water,methanol or ethanol;the higher members are only slightly soluble,and the solid substances are greasy and the solutions are soap-like.The higher members gave two melting points,heating to high temperature caused the decomposition of these compounds, trimethylamine hydroiodide was isolated in several cases. When these compounds were used on the isolated rabbits' heart the lower members produced an acetylcholine-like effect,i.e.a slowing of the heart rate, the octanoyl compound was more or less inactive,and from then onwards with increasing chain-length an increasing degree of inhibition of the response to acetyl- choline was produced.From the decanoyl compound onwards with increasing chain length they inhibited spontaneous gastric secretion and the secretion of the vagotomised stomach stimulated by prostigmine in the rats as well if administered intramuscularly.

2-二甲氨基乙醇用相应的脂醯氯醯化后得到的叔胺再用碘甲烷季铵化,合成了一系列晶体的胆碱脂酸酯氢碘酸盐,其中并包括了两个不饱和脂酸酯.在这系列化合物中,短链的化合物对神经系统的作用与乙醯胆碱相仿,但长链化合物却抑制了乙醯胆碱的作用.致谢:本文大部分实验工作系在英国 Birmingham 大学药理系所作,作者对 A.C.Frazer教授的鼓励与协助致谢.

Through graphical investigation of Soviet coal and Chinese coal, the follow-ing important conclusions are obtained. (1) The inadequacy of old coal classification methods is discussed and anentirely new method of coal classification with volatile matter on combustiblebasis as abssicca and the coal characteristic coefficient β=2.35((H~P-0.126O~P+0.04N~P)/(C~P+0.375S_?~Pas ordinate is proposed, The graphical charts show perfectly satisfactory withthe different kinds of coal located in perfectly distinct areas of...

Through graphical investigation of Soviet coal and Chinese coal, the follow-ing important conclusions are obtained. (1) The inadequacy of old coal classification methods is discussed and anentirely new method of coal classification with volatile matter on combustiblebasis as abssicca and the coal characteristic coefficient β=2.35((H~P-0.126O~P+0.04N~P)/(C~P+0.375S_?~Pas ordinate is proposed, The graphical charts show perfectly satisfactory withthe different kinds of coal located in perfectly distinct areas of classification.Thus the detailed classification which the old methods fail to give out, is perfectlypossible with the new method. (2) The ultimate composition of coal on combustible basis, like C~2, 0~2, H~2,N~2 and the analytical moisture, W~a and their variation with the volatile matteron combustible basis and with each other is graphically investigated and it isfound that their variation with each other proceeded with distinct regularitywith the exception of sulphur and ash, so that their composition percentage canbe approximatety estimated with rough accuracy through these graphs and theclose check of analytical results of ultimate composition can be carried outthrough the use of these graphs. (3) a general relationship in the proximate and ultimate composition of the pure coal substance on combustible basis for typical Chinese coals can bederived with the following straight line formula for the average percentage of car-ben on combustible basis in terms of the volatile matter on combustible basisin the region of bituminous coal: C~2=93.3-(V~2/4.55) during (8

此文系用图解方法进行研究: (Ⅰ)煤的分类方法,以何种方法为最合适(图解图1—9); (Ⅱ)煤的成分变化是否有一定的规律,及其相互间是否有一定的关系(图解图10—20); (Ⅲ)煤的原素分析与实用分析间的关系(图解图21—23); (Ⅳ)煤的发热量的变化(图解图24—28); (Ⅴ)燃煤所需理论空气量、理论乾烟气量及湿烟气量的变化(图解图29—31)。原始资料系利用:(1)中国各地产煤实用分析; (2)中国东北区及华北区原素分析; (3)苏联全苏热工研究所公布的固体及液体燃料的计算特性数据; (4)英国及德国的数据。图解研究结果,得出结论: 1.新的煤分类方法,以纯燃质挥发物为分类基础而同时结合煤的特性系数β的方法为最合适,或可认为近百年间国际间,对煤分类法的一个很重大的建议。 2.煤的成分变化,极有规律而成分间具有一定的关系。 3.煤的原素分析与实用分析间的关系,可用平均数值推演估计,而比较正确数据,可根据图解估计, 或可利用图解核对分析数据。 4.煤的发热量,即纯燃质氧弹发热量的变化极有规律,可用平均数据,利用近似公式推算,或按照肯定的煤的类别,根据图解来比较正确的估计,或利用图解核对试验的数...

此文系用图解方法进行研究: (Ⅰ)煤的分类方法,以何种方法为最合适(图解图1—9); (Ⅱ)煤的成分变化是否有一定的规律,及其相互间是否有一定的关系(图解图10—20); (Ⅲ)煤的原素分析与实用分析间的关系(图解图21—23); (Ⅳ)煤的发热量的变化(图解图24—28); (Ⅴ)燃煤所需理论空气量、理论乾烟气量及湿烟气量的变化(图解图29—31)。原始资料系利用:(1)中国各地产煤实用分析; (2)中国东北区及华北区原素分析; (3)苏联全苏热工研究所公布的固体及液体燃料的计算特性数据; (4)英国及德国的数据。图解研究结果,得出结论: 1.新的煤分类方法,以纯燃质挥发物为分类基础而同时结合煤的特性系数β的方法为最合适,或可认为近百年间国际间,对煤分类法的一个很重大的建议。 2.煤的成分变化,极有规律而成分间具有一定的关系。 3.煤的原素分析与实用分析间的关系,可用平均数值推演估计,而比较正确数据,可根据图解估计, 或可利用图解核对分析数据。 4.煤的发热量,即纯燃质氧弹发热量的变化极有规律,可用平均数据,利用近似公式推算,或按照肯定的煤的类别,根据图解来比较正确的估计,或利用图解核对试验的数据。 5.燃煤所需理论空气量,理论乾烟气量及湿烟气量均可用近似公式推算。

 
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